Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

The Five Elements

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Translated by Swami Madhavananda

Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta

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Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.

The infinite proceeds from the infinite.

(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),

It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

I-i-1: Om. The head of the sacrificial horse is the dawn, its eye the sun, its vital force the air, its open mouth the fire called Vaisvanara, and the body of the sacrificial horse is the year. Its back is heaven, its belly the sky, its hoof the earth, its sides the four quarters, its ribs the intermediate quarters, its members the seasons, its joints the months and fortnights, its feet the days and nights, its bones the stars and its flesh the clouds. Its half-digested food is the sand, its blood-vessels the rivers, its liver and spleen the mountains, its hairs the herbs and trees. Its forepart is the ascending sun, its hind part the descending sun, its yawning is lightning, its shaking the body is thundering, its making water is raining, and its neighing is voice.

I-i-2: The (gold) vessel called Mahiman in front of the horse, which appeared about it (i.e. pointing it out), is the day. Its source is the eastern sea. The (silver) vessel Mahiman behind the horse, which appeared about it, is the night. Its source is the western sea. These two vessels called Mahiman appeared on either side of the horse. As a Haya it carried the gods, as a Vajin the celestial minstrels, as an Arvan the Asuras, and as an Asva men. The Supreme Self is its stable and the Supreme Self (or the sea) its source.

I-ii-1: There was nothing whatsoever here in the beginning. It was covered only by Death (Hiranyagarbha), or Hunger, for hunger is death. He created the mind, thinking, ‘Let me have a mind’. He moved about worshipping (himself). As he was worshipping, water was produced. (Since he thought), ‘As I was worshipping, water sprang up’, therefore Arka (fire) is so called. Water (or happiness) surely comes to one who knows how Arka (fire) came to have this name of Arka.

I-ii-2: Water is Arka. What was there (like) forth on the water was solidified and became this earth. When that was produced, he was tired. While he was (thus) tired and distressed, his essence, or lustre, came forth. This was Fire.

I-ii-3: He (Viraj) differentiated himself in three ways, making the sun the third form, and air the third form. So, this Prana (Viraj) is divided in three ways. His head is the east, and his arms that (north-east) and that (south-east). And his hind part is the west, his hip-bones that (north-west) and that (south-west), his sides the south and north, his back heaven, his belly the sky, and his breast this earth. He rests on water. He who knows (it) thus gets a resting place wherever he goes.

I-ii-4: He desired, ‘Let me have a second form (body).’ He, Death or Hunger, brought about the union of speech (the Vedas) with the mind. What was the seed there became the Year (Viraj). Before him there had been no year. He (Death) reared him for as long as a year, and after this period projected him. When he was born, (Death) opened his mouth (to swallow him). He (the babe) cried ‘Bhan!’ That became speech.

I-ii-5: He thought, ‘If I kill him, I shall be making very little food.’ Through that speech and the mind he projected all this, whatever there is – the Vedas Rig, Yajus and Saman, the metres, the sacrifices, men and animals. Whatever he projected, he resolved to eat. Because he eats everything, therefore Aditi (Death) is so called. He who knows how Aditi came to have this name of Aditi, becomes the eater of all this, and everything becomes his food.

I-ii-6: He desired, ‘Let me sacrifice again with the great sacrifice’. He was tired, and he was distressed. While he was (thus) tired and distressed, his reputation and strength departed. The organs are reputation and strength. When the organs departed, the body began to swell, (but) his mind was set on the body.

I-ii-7: He desired, ‘Let this body of mine be fit for a sacrifice, and let me be embodied through this’, (and entered it). Because the body swelled (Asvat), therefore it came to be called Asva (horse). And because it became fit for a sacrifice, therefore the horse sacrifice came to be known as Asvamedha. He who knows it thus indeed knows the horse sacrifice. (Imagining himself as the horse and) letting it remain free, he reflected (on it). After a year he sacrificed it to himself, and dispatched the (other) animals to the gods. Therefore (priests to this day) sacrifice to Prajapati the sanctified (horse) that is dedicated to all the gods. He who shines yonder is the horse sacrifice; his body is the year. This fire is Arka; its limbs are these worlds. So these two (fire and the sun) are Arka and the horse sacrifice. These two again become the same god, Death. He (who knows thus) conquers further death, death cannot overtake him, it becomes his self, and he becomes one with these deities.

I-iii-1: There were two classes of Prajapati’s sons, the gods and the Asuras. Naturally, the gods were fewer, and the Asuras more in number. They vied with each other for (the mastery of these worlds. The gods said, ‘Now let us surpass the Asuras in (this) sacrifice through the Udgitha’.

I-iii-2: They said to the organ of speech, ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’, said the organ of speech and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the organ of speech, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine speaking it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one speaks improper things.

I-iii-3: Then they said to the nose ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’, said the nose and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the nose, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine smelling it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one smells improper things.

I-iii-4: Then they said to the eye ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’, said the eye and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the eye, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine seeing it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one sees improper things.

I-iii-5: Then they said to the ear ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’, said the ear and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the ear, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine hearing it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one hears improper things.

I-iii-6: Then they said to the mind ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’, said the mind and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the mind, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine thinking it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one thinks improper things. Likewise they also touched these (other) deities with evil – struck them with evil.

I-iii-7: Then they said to this vital force in the mouth, ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’, said the vital force and chanted for them. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and wanted to strike it with evil. But as a clod of earth, striking against a rock, is shattered, so were they shattered, flung in all directions, and perished. Therefore the gods became (fire etc.), and the Asuras were crushed. He who knows thus becomes his true self, and his envious kinsman is crushed.

I-iii-8: They said, ‘Where was he who has thus restored us (to our divinity)?’ (and discovered): ‘Here he is within the mouth’. The vital force is called Ayasya Angirasa, for it is the essence of the members (of the body).

I-iii-9: This deity is called Dur, because death is far from it. Death is far from one who knows thus.

I-iii-10: This deity took away death, the evil of these gods, and carried it to where these quarters end. There it left their evils. Therefore one should not approach a person (of that region), nor go to that region beyond the border, lest one imbibe that evil, death.

I-iii-11: This deity after taking away death, the evil of these gods, next carried them beyond death.

I-iii-12: It carried the organ of speech, the foremost one, first. When the organ of speech got rid of death, it became fire. That fire, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach.

I-iii-13: Then it carried the nose. When it got rid of death, it became air. That air, having transcended death, blows beyond its reach.

I-iii-14: Then it carried the eye. When the eye got rid of death, it became sun. That sun, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach.

I-iii-15: Then it carried the ear When the ear got rid of death, it became the quarters. Those quarters, having transcended death, remain beyond its reach.

I-iii-16: Then it carried the mind. When the mind got rid of death, it became the moon. That moon, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach. So does this deity carry one who knows thus beyond death.

I-iii-17: Next it secured eatable food for itself by chanting, for whatever food is eaten, is eaten by the vital force alone, and it rests on that.

I-iii-18: The gods said, ‘Whatever food there is, is just this much, and you have secured it for yourself by chanting. Now let us have a share in this food.’ ‘Then sit around facing me’, (said the vital force). ‘All right’, (said the gods and) sat down around it. Hence whatever food one eats through the vital force satisfies these. So do his relatives sit around facing him who knows thus, and he becomes their support, the greatest among them and their leader, a good eater of food and the ruler of them. That one among his relatives who desires to rival a man of such knowledge is powerless to support his dependants. But one who follows him, or desires to maintain one’s dependants being under him, is alone capable of supporting them.

I-iii-19: It is called Ayasya Angirasa, for it is the essence of the members (of the body). The vital force is indeed the essence of the members. Of course it is their essence. (For instance), from whichever member the vital force departs, right there it withers. Therefore this is of course the essence of the members.

I-iii-20: This alone is also Brihaspati (lord of the Rik). Speech is indeed Brihati (Rik) and this is its lord. Therefore this is also Brihaspati.

I-iii-21: This alone is also Brahmanaspati (lord of the Yajus). Speech is indeed Brahman (yajus), and this is its lord. Therefore this is also Brahmanaspati.

I-iii-22: This alone is also Saman. Speech is indeed Sa, and this is Ama. Because it is Sa (speech) and Ama (vital force), therefore Saman is so called. Or because it is equal to a white ant, equal to a mosquito, equal to an elephant, equal to these three worlds, equal to this universe, therefore this is also Saman. He who knows this saman (vital force) to be such attains union with it, or lives in the same world as it.

I-iii-23: This indeed is also Udgitha. The vital force is indeed Ut, for all this is held aloft by the vital force, and speech alone is Githa. This is Udgitha, because it is Ut and Githa.

I-iii-24: Regarding this (there is) also (a story): Brahmadatta, the great-grandson of Cikitana, while drinking Soma, said, ‘Let this Soma strike off my head if I say that Ayasya Angirasa chanted the Udgitha through any other than this (vital force and speech).’ Indeed he chanted through speech and the vital force.

I-iii-25: He who knows the wealth of this Saman (vital force) attains wealth. Tone is indeed its wealth. Therefore one who is going to officiate as a priest should desire to have a rich tone in his voice, and he should do his priestly duties through that voice with a fine tone. Therefore in a sacrifice people long to see a priest with a good voice, like one who has wealth. He who knows the wealth of saman to be such attains wealth.

I-iii-26: He who knows the gold of this Saman (vital force) obtains gold. Tone is indeed its gold. He who knows the gold of Saman to be such obtains gold.

I-iii-27: He who knows the support of this Saman (vital force) gets a resting place. Speech (certain parts of the body) is indeed its support. For resting on speech is the vital force thus chanted. Some say, resting on food (body).

I-iii-28: Now therefore the edifying repetition (Adhyaroha) only of the hymns called Pavamanas. The priest called Prastotir indeed recites the Saman. While he recites it, these Mantras are to be repeated: From evil lead me to good. From darkness lead me to light. From death lead me to immortality. When the Mantra says, ‘From evil lead me to good’, ‘evil’ means death, and ‘good’ immortality; so it says, ‘From death lead me to immortality, i.e. make me immortal’. When it says, ‘From darkness lead me to light’, ‘darkness’ means death, and ‘light’, immortality; so it says, ‘From death lead me to immortality, or make me immortal’. In the dictum, ‘From death lead me to immortality’, the meaning does not seem to be hidden. Then through the remaining hymns (the chanter) should secure eatable food for himself by chanting. Therefore, while they are being chanted, the sacrificer should ask for a boon – anything that he desires. Whatever objects this chanter possessed of such knowledge desires, either for himself or for the sacrificer, he secures them by chanting. This (meditation) certainly wins the world (Hiranyagarbha). He who knows the Saman (vital force) as such has not to pray lest he be unfit for this world.

I-iv-1: In the beginning, this (universe) was but the self (Viraj) of a human form. He reflected and found nothing else but himself. He first uttered, ‘‘ am he’’ Therefore he was called Aham (I). Hence, to this day, when a person is addressed, he first says, ‘It is I,’ and then says the other name that he may have. Because he was first and before this whole (band of aspirants) burnt all evils, therefore he is called Purusha. He who knows thus indeed burns one who wants to be (Viraj) before him.

I-iv-2: He was afraid. Therefore people (still) are afraid to be alone. He thought, ‘If there is nothing else but me, what am I afraid of ?’ From that alone his fear was gone, for what was there to fear ? It is from a second entity that fear comes.

I-iv-3: He was not at all happy. Therefore people (still) are not happy when alone. He desired a mate. He became as big as man and wife embracing each other. He parted this very body into two. From that came husband and wife. Therefore, said Yajnavalkya, this (body) is one-half of oneself, like one of the two halves of a split pea. Therefore this space is indeed filled by the wife. He was united with her. From that men were born.

I-iv-4: She thought, ‘How can he be united with me after producing me from himself ? Well let me hide myself’. She became a cow, the other became a bull and was united with her; from that cows were born. The one became a mare, the other a stallion; the one became a she-ass, the other became a he-ass and was united with her; from that onehoofed animals were born. The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat; the one became a ewe, the other became a ram and was united with her; from that goats and sheep were born. Thus did he project every thing that exists in pairs, down to the ants.

I-iv-5: He knew, ‘I indeed am the creation, for I projected all this’. Therefore he was called Creation. He who knows this as such becomes (a creator) in this creation of Viraj.

I-iv-6: Then he rubbed back and forth thus, and produced fire from its source, the mouth and the hands. Therefore both these are without hair at the inside. When they talk of particular gods, saying, ‘Sacrifice to him’, ‘sacrifice to the other one’, (they are wrong, since) these are all his projection, for he is all the gods. Now all this that is liquid, he produced from the seed. That is Soma. This universe is indeed this much – food and the eater of food. Soma is food, and fire the eater of food. This is super-creation of Viraj that he projected the gods, who are even superior to him. Because he, although mortal himself, projected the immortals, therefore this is a super-creation. He who knows this as such becomes (a creator) in this super-creation of Viraj.

I-iv-7: This (universe) was then undifferentiated. It differentiated only into name and form – it was called such and such, and was of such and such form. So to this day it is differentiated only into name and form – it is called such and such, and is of such and such form. This Self has entered into these bodies up to the tip of the nails – as a razor may be put in its case, or as fire, which sustains the world, may be in its source. People do not see It, for (viewed in Its aspects) It is incomplete. When It does the function of living. It is called the vital force; when It speaks, the organ of speech; when It sees, the eye; when It hears, the ear; and when It thinks, the mind. These are merely Its names according to functions. He who meditates upon each of this totality of aspects does not know, for It is incomplete, (being divided) from this totality by possessing a single characteristic. The Self alone is to be meditated upon, for all these are unified in It. Of all these, this Self should be realised, for one knows all these through It, just as one may get (an animal) through its foot-prints. He who knows It as such obtains fame and association (with his relatives).

I-iv-8: This Self is dearer than a son, dearer than wealth, dearer than everything else, and is innermost. Should a person (holding the Self as dear) say to one calling anything else dearer than the Self, ‘(what you hold) dear will die’ – he is certainly competent (to say so) – it will indeed come true. One should meditate upon the Self alone as dear. Of him who meditates upon the Self alone as dear, the dear ones are not mortal.

I-iv-9: They say: Men think, ‘Through the knowledge of Brahman we shall become all’. Well, what did that Brahman know by which It became all ?

I-iv-10: This (self) was indeed Brahman in the beginning. It knew only Itself as, ‘I am Brahman’. Therefore It became all. And whoever among the gods knew It also became That; and the same with sages and men. The sage Vamadeva, while realising this (self) as That, knew, ‘I was Manu, and the sun’. And to this day whoever in like manner knows It as, ‘I am Brahman’, becomes all this (universe). Even the gods cannot prevail against him, for he becomes their self. While he who worships another god thinking, ‘He is one, and I am another’, does not know. He is like an animal to the gods. As many animals serve a man, so does each man serve the gods. Even if one animal is taken away, it causes anguish, what should one say of many animals ? Therefore it is not liked by them that men should know this.

I-iv-11: In the beginning this (the Kshatriya and other castes) was indeed Brahman, one only. Being one, he did not flourish. He specially projected an excellent form, the Kshatriya – those who are Kshatriyas among the gods: Indra, Varuna, the moon, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, Death, and Isana. Therefore there is none higher than the Kshatriya. Hence the Brahmana worships the Kshatriya from a lower position in the Rajasuya sacrifice. He imparts that glory to the Kshatriya. The Brahmana is the source of the Kshatriya. Therefore, although the king attains supremacy (in the sacrifice), at the end of it he resorts to the Brahmana, his source. He who slights the Brahmana, strikes at his own source. He becomes more wicked, as one is by slighting one’s superior.

I-iv-12: Yet he did not flourish. He projected the Vaisya – those species of gods who are designated in groups: the Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, Visvadevas and Maruts.

I-iv-13: He did not still flourish. He projected the Sudra caste – Pusan. This (earth) is Pusan. For it nourishes all this that exists.

I-iv-14: Yet he did not flourish. He specially projected that excellent form, righteousness (Dharma). This righteousness is the controller of the Kshatriya. Therefore there is nothing higher than that. (So) even a weak man hopes (to defeat) a stronger man through righteousness, as (one contending) with the king. That righteousness, as (one contending) with the king. That righteousness is verily truth. Therefore they say about a person speaking of truth, ‘He speaks of righteousness’, or about a person speaking of righteousness, ‘He speaks of truth’, for both these are but righteousness.

I-iv-15: (So) these (four castes were projected) – the Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sudra. He became a Brahmana among the gods as Fore, and among men as the Brahmana. (He became) a Kshatriya through the (divine) Kshatriyas, a Vaisya through the (divine) Vaisyas and a Sudra through the (divine) Sudra. Therefore people desire to attain the results of their rites among the gods through fire, and among men as the Brahmana. For Brahman was in these two forms. If, however, anybody departs from this world without realising his own world (the Self), It, being unknown, does not protect him – as the Vedas not studied, or any other work not undertaken (do not). Even if a man who does not know It as such performs a great many meritorious acts in the world, those acts of his are surely exhausted in the end. One should meditate only upon the world of the Self. He who meditates only upon the world called the Self never has his work exhausted. From this very Self he projects whatever he wants.

I-iv-16: Now this self (the ignorant man) is an object of enjoyment to all beings. That he makes oblations in the fire and performs sacrifices is how he becomes such an object to the gods. That he studies the Vedas is how he becomes an object of enjoyment to the Rishis (sages). That he makes offerings to the Manes and desires children is how he becomes such an object to the Manes. That he gives shelter to men as well as food is how he becomes an object of enjoyment to men. That he gives fodder and water to the animals is how he becomes such an object to hem. And that beasts and birds, and even the ants, feed in his home is how he becomes an object of enjoyment to these. Just as one wishes safety to one’s body, so do all beings wish safety to him who knows it as such. This indeed has been known, and discussed.

I-iv-17: This (aggregate of desirable objects) was but the self in the beginning – the only entity. He desired, ‘Let me have a wife, so that I may be born (as the child). And let me have wealth, so that I may perform rites’. This much indeed is (the range of) desire. Even if one wishes, one cannot get more than this. Therefore to this day a man being single desires, ‘Let me have a wife, so that I may be born. And let me have wealth, so that I may perform rites.’ Until he obtains each one of these, he considers himself incomplete. His completeness also (comes thus): The mind is his self, speech his wife, the vital force his child, the eye his human wealth, for he obtains it through the eye, the ear his divine wealth, for he hears of it through the ear, and the body is its (instrument of) rite, for he performs rites through the body. (So) this sacrifice has five factors – the animals have five factors, the men have five factors, and all this that exists has five factors. He who knows it as such attains all this.

I-v-1: That the father produced seven kinds of food through meditation and rites (I shall disclose). One is common to all eaters. Two he apportioned to the gods. Three he designed for himself. And one he gave to the animals. On it rests everything – what lives and what does not. Why are they not exhausted, although they are always being eaten ? He who knows this cause of their permanence eats food with Pratika (pre-eminence). He attains (identity with) the gods and lives on nectar. These are the verses.

I-v-2: ‘That the father produced seven kinds of food through meditation and rites’ means that the father indeed produced them through meditation and rites. ‘One is common to all eaters’ means, this food that is eaten is the common food of all eaters. He who adores (monopolises) this food is never free from evil, for this is general food. ‘Two he apportioned to the gods’ means making oblations in the fire, and offering presents otherwise to the gods. Therefore people perform both these. Some, however, say, those two are the new and full moon sacrifices. Therefore one should not be engrossed with sacrifices for material ends. ‘One he gave to the animals’ – it is milk. For men and animals first live on milk alone. Therefore they first make a new-born babe lick clarified butter or suckle it. And they speak of a new-born calf as not yet eating grass. ‘On it rests everything – what lives and what does not’ means that on milk indeed rests all this that lives and that does not. It is said that by making offerings of milk in the fire for a year one conquers further death. One should not think like that. He who knows as above conquers further death the very day he makes that offering, for he offers all eatable food to the gods, ‘Why are they not exhausted, although they are always being eaten ?’ – means that the being (eater) is indeed the cause of their permanence, for the produces this food again and again. ‘He who knows this cause of their permanence’ means that the being (eater) is indeed the cause of their permanence, for he produces this food through his meditation for the time being and rites. If he does not do this, it will be exhausted. ‘He eats food with Pratika’; ‘Pratika’ means pre-eminence; hence the meaning is, pre-eminently. ‘He attains the gods and lives on nectar’ is a eulogy.

I-v-3: ‘Three he designed for himself’ means: the mind, the organ of speech and the vital force; these he designed for himself. (They say), ‘I was absent-minded, I did not see it’, ‘I was absent-minded, I did not hear it’. It is through the mind that one sees and hears. Desires, resolve, doubt, faith, want of faith, steadiness, unsteadiness, shame, intelligence and fear – all these are but the mind. Even if one is touched from behind, one knows it through the mind; therefore (the mind exists). And any kind of sound is but the organ of speech, for it serves to determine a thing, but it cannot itself be revealed. Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, Samana and Ana – all these are but the vital forces. This body is identified with these – with the organ of speech, the mind and the vital force.

I-v-4: These are the three worlds. The organ of speech is this world (the earth), the mind is the sky, and the vital force is that world (heaven).

I-v-5: These are the three Vedas. The organ of speech is the Rig-Veda, the mind is the Yajur-Veda and the vital force the Sama-Veda.

I-v-6: These are the gods, the Manes and men. The organ of speech is the gods, the mind the Manes, and the vital force men.

I-v-7: These are the father, mother and child. The mind is the father, the organ of speech the mother, and the vital force the child.

I-v-8: These are what is known, what it is desirable to know, and what is unknown. Whatever is known is a form of the organ of speech, for it is the knower. The organ of speech protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which is known).

I-v-9: Whatever it is desirable to know is a form of the mind, for the mind is what it is desirable to know. The mind protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which it is desirable to know).

I-v-10: Whatever is unknown is a form of the vital force, for the vital force is what is unknown. The vital force protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which is unknown).

I-v-11: The earth is the body of that organ of speech, and this fire is its luminous organ. And as far as the organ of speech extends, so far extends the earth and so far does this fire.

I-v-12: Heaven is the body of this mind, and that sun is its luminous organ. And as far as the mind extends, so far extends heaven, and so far does that sun. The two were united, and from that the vital force emanated. It is the Supreme Lord. It is without a rival. A second being is indeed a rival. He who knows it as such has no rival.

I-v-13: Water is the body of this vital force, and that moon is its luminous organ. And as far as the vital force extends, so far extends water, and so far does that moon. These are all equal, and all infinite. He who meditates upon these as finite wins a finite world, but he who meditates upon these as infinite wins an infinite world.

I-v-14: This Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha) has sixteen digits and is represented by the year. The nights (and days) are his fifteen digits, and the constant one is his sixteenth digit. He (as the moon) is filled as well as wasted by the nights (and days). Through this sixteenth digit he permeates all these living beings on the new-moon night and rises the next morning. Therefore on this night one should not take the life of living beings, not even of a chameleon, in adoration of this deity alone.

I-v-15: That Prajapati who has sixteen digits and is represented by the year is indeed this man who knows as above. Wealth constitutes his fifteen digits, and the body his sixteenth digit. He is filled as well as wasted by wealth. This body stands for a nave, and wealth is the felloe. Therefore if a man loses everything, but he himself lives, people say that he has only lost his outfit.

I-v-16: There are indeed three worlds, the world of men, the world of the Manes and the world of the gods. This world of men is to be won through the son alone, and by no other rite; the world of the Manes through rites; and the world of the gods through meditation. The world of the gods is the best of the worlds. Therefore they praise meditation.

I-v-17: Now therefore the entrusting: When a man thinks he will die, he says to his son, ‘You are Brahman, you are the sacrifice, and you are the world’. The son replies, ‘I am Brahman, I am the sacrifice, and I am the world.’ (The father thinks ‘Whatever is studied is all unified in the word “Brahman”. Whatever sacrifices there are, are all unified in the word “sacrifice”. And whatever worlds there are, are all unified in the world “world”. All this (the duties of a householder) is indeed this much. He, being all this, will protect me from (the ties of) this world.’ Therefor they speak of an educated son as being conducive to the world. Hence (a father) teaches his son. When a father who knows as above departs from this world, he penetrates his son together with the organ of speech, the mind and the vital force. Should anything be left undone by him through any slip the son exonerates him from all that. Therefore he is called a son. The father lives in this world through the son. Divine and immortal speech, mind and vital force permeate him.

I-v-18: The divine organ of speech from the earth and fire permeates him. That is the divine organ of speech through which whatever he says is fulfilled.

I-v-19: The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him. That is the divine mind through which he only becomes happy and never mourns.

I-v-20: The divine vital force from water and the moon permeates him. That is the divine vital force which, when it moves or does not move, feels no pain nor is injured. He who knows as above becomes the self of all beings. As is this deity (Hiranyagarbha), so is he. As all beings take care of this deity, so do they take care of him. Howsoever these beings may grieve, that grief of theirs is connected with them. But only merit goes to him. No demerit ever goes to the gods.

I-v-21: Now a consideration of the vow: Prajapati projected the organs. These, on being projected, quarrelled with one another. The organ of speech took a vow, ‘I will go on speaking’. The eye: ‘I will see’. The ear: ‘I will hear’. And so did the other organs according to their functions. Death captured them in the form of fatigue – it overtook the, and having overtaken them it controlled them. Therefore the organ of speech invariably gets tired, and so do the eye and the ear. But death did not overtake this vital force in the body. The organs resolved to know it. ‘This is the greatest among us that, when it moves or does not move, feels no pain nor is injured. Well, let us all be of its form.’ They all assumed its form. Therefore they are called by this name of ‘Prana’. That family in which a man is born who knows as above, is indeed named after him. And he who competes with one who knows as above shrivels, and after shrivelling dies at the end. This is with reference to the body.

I-v-22: Now with reference to the gods: Fire took a vow, ‘I will go on burning.’ The sun: ‘I will give heat’. The moon: ‘I will shine’. And so did the other gods according to their functions. As is the vital force in the body among these organs, so is Vayu (air) among these gods. Other gods sink, but not air. Air is the deity that never sets.

I-v-23: Now there is this verse; ‘The gods observed the vow of that from which the sun rises and in which he sets. It is (followed) to-day, and it will be (followed) to-morrow.’ The sun indeed rises from the vital force and also sets in it. What these (gods) observed then, they observe to this day. Therefore a man should observe a single vow – do the functions of the Prana and Apana (respiration and excretion), lest the evil of death (fatigue) should overtake him. And if he observes it, he should seek to finish it. Through it he attains identity with this deity, or lives in the same world with it.

I-vi-1: This (universe) indeed consists of three things: name, form and action. Of those names, speech (sound in general) is the Uktha (source), for all names spring from it. It is their Saman (common feature), for it is common to all names. It is their Brahman (self), for it sustains all names.

I-vi-2: Now of forms the eye (anything visible) is the Uktha (source), for all forms spring from it. It is their Saman (common feature), for it is common to all forms. It is their Brahman (self), for it sustains all forms.

I-vi-3: And of actions the body (activity) is the Uktha (source), for all actions spring from it. It is their Saman (common feature), for it is common to all actions. It is their Brahman (self), for it sustains all actions. These three together are one – this body, and the body, although one, is these three. This immortal entity is covered by truth (the five elements): The vital force is the immortal entity, and name and form and truth; (so) this vital force is covered by them.

II-i-1: Om. There was a man of the Garga family called Proud Balaki, who was a speaker. He said to Ajatasatru, the king of Benares, ‘I will tell you about Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, ‘For this proposal I give you a thousand (cows). People indeed rush saying “Janaka, Janaka”. (I too have some of his qualities.)’

II-i-2: Gargya said, ‘That being who is in the sun, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, ‘Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as all-surpassing, as the head of all beings and as resplendent. He who meditates upon him as such becomes all-surpassing, the head of all beings and resplendent.

II-i-3: Gargya said, ‘that being who is in the moon, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as the great, white-robed, radiant Soma.’ He who meditates upon him as such has abundant Soma pressed in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices every day, and his food never gets short.

II-i-4: Gargya said, ‘That being who is in lightning, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as powerful’. He who meditates upon him as such becomes powerful, and his progeny too becomes powerful.

II-i-5: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in the ether, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving’. He who meditates upon him as such is filled with progeny and cattle, and his progeny is never extinct from this world.

II-i-6: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in air, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as the Lord, as irresistible, and as the unvanquished army.’ He who meditates upon him as such ever becomes victorious and invincible, and conquers his enemies.

II-i-7: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in fire, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as forbearing’. He who meditates upon him as such becomes forbearing, and his progeny too becomes forbearing.

II-i-8: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in water, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as agreeable’. He who meditates upon him as such has only agreeable things coming to him, and not contrary ones; also from him are born children who are agreeable.

II-i-9: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in a looking-glass, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as shining’. He who meditates upon him as such becomes shining, and his progeny too becomes shining. He also outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.

II-i-10: Gargya said, ‘This sound that issues behind a man as he walks, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as life’. He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world, and life does not depart from him before the completion of that term.

II-i-11: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in the quarters, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as second and as non-separating’. He who meditates upon him as such gets companions, and his followers never depart from him.

II-i-12: Gargya said, ‘This being who identifies himself with the shadow, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as death’. He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world, and death does not overtake him before the completion of that term.

II-i-13: Gargya said, ‘This being who is in the self, I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said, “Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as self-possessed.’ He who meditates upon him as such becomes self-possessed, and his progeny too becomes self-possessed. Gargya remained silent.

II-i-14: Ajatasatru said, ‘is this all ?’ ‘This is all’. ‘By knowing this much one cannot know (Brahman)’. Gargya said, ‘I approach you as a student’.

II-i-15: Ajatasatru said, ‘It is contrary to usage that a Brahmana should approach a Kshatriya thinking, “he will teach me about Brahman”. However I will instruct you’. Taking Gargya by the hand he rose. They came to a sleeping man. (Ajatasatru) addressed him by these names, Great, White-robed, radiant, Soma’. The man did not get up. (The King) pushed him with the hand till he awoke. Then he got up.

II-i-16: Ajatasatru said, ‘When this being full of consciousness (identified with the mind) was thus asleep, where was it, and whence did it thus come ?’ Gargya did not know that.

II-i-17: Ajatasatru said, ‘When this being full of consciousness is thus asleep, it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own consciousness, and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called Svapiti. Then the nose is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed’.

II-i-18: When it thus remains in the dream state, these are its achievements: It then becomes an emperor, as it were, or a noble Brahmana, as it were, or attains states high or low, as it were. As an emperor, taking his citizens, moves about as he pleases in his own territory, so does it, thus taking the organs, move about as it pleases in its own body.

II-i-19: Again when it becomes fast asleep – when it does not know anything – it comes back along the seventy-two thousand nerves called Hita, which extend from the heart to the pericardium (the whole body), and remains in the body. As a baby, or an emperor, or a noble Brahmana lives, having attained the acme of bliss, so does it remain.

II-i-20: As a spider moves along the thread (it produces), and as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions, so from this Self emanate all organs, all worlds, all gods and all beings. Its secret name (Upanishad) is ‘the Truth of Truth’. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

II-ii-1: He who knows the calf with its abode, its special resort, its post and its tether kills his seven envions kinsmen: the vital force in the body is indeed the calf; this body is its abode, the head its special resort, strength its post, and food its tether.

II-ii-2: These seven gods that prevent decay worship it: Through these pink lines in the eye Rudra attends on it; through the water that is in the eye, Parjanya; through the pupil, the sun; through the dark portion, fire; through the white portion, Indra; through the lower eye-lid the earth attends on it; and through the upper eye-lid, heaven. He who knows it as such never has any decrease of food.

II-ii-3: Regarding this there is the following pithy verse: ‘there is a bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top; various kinds of knowledge have been put in it; seven sages sit by its side, and the organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth’. The ‘bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top’ is the head of ours, for it is the bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top. ‘various kinds of knowledge have been put in it’, refers to the organs; these indeed represent various kinds of knowledge. ‘Seven sages sit by its side’, refers to the organs; they indeed are the sages. ‘The organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth’, because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates with the Vedas.

II-ii-4: These two (ears) are Gotama and Bharadvaja: this one is Gotama, and this one is Bharadvaja: These two (eyes) are Visvamitra and Jamadagni: this one is Visvamitra, and this one Jamadagni. These two (nostrils) are Vasistha, and Kashyapa: this one is Vasistha, and this one Kashyapa: the tongue is Atri, for through the tongue food is eaten. ‘Atri’ is but this name ‘Atti’. He who knows it as such becomes the eater of all, and everything becomes his food.

II-iii-1: Brahman has but two forms – gross and subtle, mortal and immortal, limited and unlimited, defined and undefined.

II-iii-2: The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. It is mortal, it is limited, and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the sun that shines, for it is the essence of the defined.

II-iii-3: Now the subtle – it is air and the ether. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun, for that is the essence of the undefined. This is with reference to the gods.

II-iii-4: Now with reference to the body: the gross form is but this – what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is mortal, it is limited and it is defined. The essence of that which is gross, mortal, limited and defined is the eye, for it is the essence of the defined.

II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is undefined. The essence of that which is subtle, immortal, unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye, for this is the essence of the undefined.

II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep’s wool, or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this, not this’. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. The vital force is truth, and It is the Truth of that.

II-iv-1: ‘Maitreyi, my dear’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘I am going to renounce this life. Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani’.

II-iv-2: Thereupon Maitreyi said, ‘Sir, if indeed this whole earth full of wealth be mine, shall I be immortal through that ?’ ‘No’, replied Yajnavalkya, ‘your life will be just like that of people who have plenty of things, but there is no hope of immortality through wealth.’

II-iv-3: Then Maitreyi said, ‘What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal? Tell me, sir, of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality).’

II-iv-4: Yajnavalkya said, ‘My dear, you have been my beloved (even before), and you say what is after my heart. Come, take your seat, I will explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate (on its meaning).

II-iv-5: He said: ‘It is not for the sake of the husband, my dear, that he is loved, but for one’s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the wife, my dear, that she is loved, but for one’s own sake that she is loved. It is not for the sake of the sons, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth, my dear, that it is loved, but for one’s own sake that it is loved. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana, my dear, that he is loved, but for one’s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Kshatriya, my dear, that he is loved, but for one’s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of worlds, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the gods, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of beings, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of all, my dear, that all is loved, but for one’s own sake that it is loved. The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realised – should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. By the realisation of the Self, my dear, through hearing, reflection and meditation, all this is known.

II-iv-6: The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. The Kshatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. Worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The gods oust one who knows them as different from the Self. Beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. This Brahmana, this Kshatriya, these worlds, these gods, these beings, and this all are this Self.

II-iv-7: As, when a drum is beaten, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes.

II-iv-8: As, when a conch is blown, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

II-iv-9: As, when a Vina is played, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

II-iv-10: As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue, even so, my dear, the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharvangirasa, history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, pithy verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self).

II-iv-11: As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water, as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours, as the tongue is the one goal of all savours, as the eye is the one goal of all colours , as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the Manas is the one goal of all deliberations, as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all sort of work, as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, as the anus is the one goal of all excretions, as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas.

II-iv-12: As a lump of salt dropped into water dissolves with (its component) water, and no one is able to pick it up, but from wheresoever one takes it, it tastes salt, even so, my dear, this great, endless, infinite Reality is but Pure Intelligence. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements, and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more consciousness. This is what I say, my dear. So said Yajnavalkya.

II-iv-13: Maitreyi said, ‘Just here you have thrown me into confusion, sir – by saying that after attaining (oneness) the self has no more consciousness’. Yajnavalkya said, ‘Certainly, I am not saying anything confusing, my dear; this is quite sufficient for knowledge, O Maitreyi’.

II-iv-14: Because when there is duality, as it were, then one smells something, one sees something, one hears something, one speaks something, one thinks something, one knows something. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the self, then what should one smell and through what, what should one see and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known – through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower ?

II-v-1: This earth is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this earth. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this earth, and the shining, immortal, corporeal being in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-2: This water is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this water. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this water, and the shining, immortal being identified with the seed in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-3: This fire is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this fire. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this fire, and the shining, immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-4: This air is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this air. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this air, and the shining, immortal being who is the vital force in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-5: This sun is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this sun. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this sun, and the shining, immortal being identified with the eye in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-6: These quarters is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to these quarters. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is these quarters, and the shining, immortal being identified with the ear and with the time of hearing in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-7: This moon is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this moon. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this moon, and the shining, immortal being identified with the mind in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-8: This lightning is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this lightning. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this lightning, and the shining, immortal being identified with light in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-9: This cloud is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this cloud. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this cloud, and the shining, immortal being identified with sound and voice in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-10: This ether is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this ether. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this ether, and the shining, immortal being identified with the ether in the heart, in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-11: This righteousness (Dharma) is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this righteousness. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this righteousness, and the shining, immortal being identified with righteousness in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-12: This truth is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this truth. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this truth, and the shining, immortal being identified with truth in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-13: This human species is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this human species. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this human species, and the shining, immortal being identified with the human species in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-14: This (cosmic) body is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this (cosmic) body. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this (cosmic) body, and the shining, immortal being who is this (individual) self. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.

II-v-15: This Self, already mentioned, is the ruler of all beings, and the king of all beings. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel, so are all beings, all gods, all worlds, all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self.

II-v-16: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi (Mantra) said, ‘O Asvins in human form, that terrible deed called Damsa which you committed out of greed, I will disclose as a cloud does rain – (how you learnt) the meditation on things mutually helpful that Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught you through a horse’s head.

II-v-17: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, ‘O Asvins, you set a horse’s head on (the shoulders of) Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda. O terrible ones, to keep his word, he taught you the (ritualistic) meditation on things mutually helpful connected with the sun, as also the secret (spiritual) meditation on them.’

II-v-18: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, ‘He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet. That supreme Being first entered the bodies as a bird (the subtle body).’ On account of his dwelling in all bodies, He is called the Purusha. There is nothing that is not covered by Him, nothing that is not pervaded by Him.

II-v-19: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said, ‘(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form; that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. The Lord on account of Maya (notions superimposed by ignorance) is perceived as manifold, for to Him are yoked ten organs, nay, hundreds of them. He is the organs; He is ten and thousands – many and infinite. That Brahman is without prior or posterior, without interior or exterior. This self, the perceiver of everything, is Brahman. This is the teaching.

II-vi-1: Now the line of teachers: Pautimasya (received it) from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimasya. This Pautimasya from another Gaupavana. This Gaupavana from Kausika. Kausika from Kaundinya. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. Gautama –

II-vi-2: From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. Anabhimlata from another of that name. He from a third Anabhimlata. This Anabhimlata from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava and Pracinayogya. They from Parasarya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. He from Bharadvaja and Gautama. Gautama from another Bharadvaja. He from another Parasarya. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. He from Kausikayani. Kausikayani –

II-vi-3: From Ghrtakausika. Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana. He from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska. Asurayana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. He from Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya from Manti. Manti from Gautama. Gautama from another Gautama. He from Vatsya. Vatsya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. He from Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from Vidarbhi-kaundinya. He from Vatsanapat Babhrava. He from Pathin Saubhara. He from Ayasya Angirasa. He from Abhuti Tvastra. He from Visvarupa Tvastra. He from the Asvins. They from Dadhyac Atharvana. He from Atharvan Daiva. He from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana. He from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi. Ekarsi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyasri. Vyasti from Sanaru. Sanaru from Sanatana. Sanatana from Sanaga. Sanaga from Paramesthin (Viraj). He from Brahman (Hiranyabarbha). Brahman is self born. Salutation to Brahman.

III-i-1: Om. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, performed a sacrifice in which gifts were freely distributed. Vedic scholars from Kuru and Panchala were assembled there. Emperor Janaka of Videha had a desire to know, ‘Which is the most erudite of these Vedic scholars ?’ He had a thousand cows confined in a pen, and on the horns of each cow were fixed ten Padas (of gold).

III-i-2: He said to them, ‘Revered Brahmanas, let him who is the best Vedic scholar among you drive these cows (home).’ None of the Brahmanas dared. Then Yajnavalkya said to a pupil of his, ‘Dear Samasravas, please drive these cows (home).’ He drove them. The Brahmanas were enraged. ‘How does he dare to call himself the best Vedic scholar among us ?’ there was a Hotr of Emperor Janaka of Videha named Asvala. He now asked Yajnavalkya, ‘Yajnavalkya, are you indeed the best Vedic scholar among us ?’ Yajnavalkya replied, ‘I bow to the best Vedic scholar, I just want the cows’. Thereupon the Hotr Asvala determined to interrogate him.

III-i-3: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘since all this is overtaken by death, and swayed by it, by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the clutches of death ?’ ‘Through the organ of speech – through fire, which is the (real) priest called Hotr. The sacrificer’s organ of speech is the Hotr. This organ of speech is fire; this fire is the Hotr; this (fire) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation’.

III-i-4: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘since all this is overtaken by day and night, and swayed by them, by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the clutches of day and night ?’ ‘Through the eye – through the sun, which is the (real) priest called Adhvaryu. The eye of the sacrificer is the Adhvaryu. This eye is the sun; this sun is the Adhvaryu; this (sun) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation’.

III-i-5: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘since all this is overtaken by the bright and dark fortnights, and swayed by them, by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the bright and dark fortnights /’ ‘Through the vital force – through air, which is the (real) priest called Udgatir. The vital force of the sacrificer is the Udgatir. This vital force is air, and it is the Udgatir; this (air) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation.’

III-i-6: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘since the sky is, as it were, without a support, through what support does the sacrificer go to heaven ?’ ‘Through the mind – through the moon, which is the (real) priest called Brahman. The mind of the sacrificer is the Brahman. This mind is the moon; the moon is the Brahman; this (moon) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation’. So far about the ways of emancipation; now about the meditations based on resemblance.

III-i-7: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘with how many kinds of Rik will the Hotr do his part in this sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘With three kinds’. ‘Which are those three ?’ ‘The preliminary, the sacrificial, and the eulogistic hymns as the third’. ‘What does he win through them ?’ ‘All this that is living’.

III-i-8: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘how many kinds of oblations will the Adhvaryu offer in this sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘Three’. ‘Which are those three ?’ ‘Those that blaze up on being offered, those that make a great noise, when offered, and those that sink on being offered’. ‘What does he win through them?’ ‘Through those that blaze up on being offered he wins the world of the gods, for this world shines, as it were. Through those that make a great noise, when offered, he wins the world of the manes, for this world is full of uproar. And through those that sink on being offered, he wins the human world, for this world is lower.’

III-i-9: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘through how many gods does this Brahman from the right protect the sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘Through one’. ‘Which is that one ?’ ‘The mind. The mind is indeed infinite, and infinite are the Visvadevas. Through this meditation he wins an infinite world’.

III-i-10: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘how many classes of hymns the Udgatir chant in this sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘Three classes’. ‘Which are those three ?’ ‘The preliminary, the sacrificial, and the eulogistic hymns as the third’. ‘Which are those that have reference to the body ?’ ‘The Prana is the preliminary hymn, the Apana is the sacrificial hymn, and the Vyana is the eulogistic hymn’. ‘What does he win through them ?’ ‘Through the preliminary hymns he wins the earth, through the sacrificial hymns he wins the sky, and through the eulogistic hymns he wins heaven’. Thereupon the Hotr Asvala kept silent.

III-ii-1: Then Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, asked him. ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘how many are the Grahas, and how many are the Atigrahas ?’ ‘There are eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas’. ‘Which are those eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas ?’

III-ii-2: The Prana (nose) indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, the Apana (odour), for one smells odours through the Apana (the air breathed in).

III-ii-3: The organ of speech indeed is the graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, name, for one utters names through the organ of speech.

III-ii-4: The tongue indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, taste, for one knows tastes through the tongue.

III-ii-5: The eye indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, colour, for one sees colours through the eye.

III-ii-6: The ear indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, sound, for one hears sounds through the ear.

III-ii-7: The mind indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, desire, for one wishes desires through the mind.

III-ii-8: The hands indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, work, for one does work through the hands.

III-ii-9: The skin indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, touch, for one feels touch through the skin. These are the eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas.

III-ii-10: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘since all this is the food of death, who is that god whose food is death ?’ ‘Fire is death; it is the food of water. (One who knows thus) conquers further death’.

III-ii-11: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘when the (liberated) man dies, do his organs go up from him, or do they not ?’ ‘No’, replied Yajnavalkya, ‘(They) merge in him only. The body swells, is inflated, and in that state lies dead.’

III-ii-12: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘when this man dies, what is it that does not leave him ?’ ‘Name. The name indeed is infinite, and infinite are the Visvadevas. He (who knows thus) wins thereby a really infinite world’.

III-ii-13: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘when the vocal organ of a man who dies is merged in fire, the nose in air, the eye in the sun, the mind in the moon, the ear in the quarters, the body in the earth, the ether of the heart in the external ether, the hair on the body in herbs, that on the head in trees, and the blood and the seed are deposited in water, where is then the man ?’ ‘Give me your hand, dear Artabhaga, we will decide this between ourselves, we cannot do it in a crowded place.’ They went out and talked it over. What they mentioned there was only work, and what they praised there was also work alone. (Therefore) one indeed becomes good through good work and evil through evil work. Thereupon Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, kept silent.

III-iii-1: Then Bhujyu, the grandson of Lahya, asked him. ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘we travelled in Madra as students, and we came to the house of Patanchala of the line of Kapi. His daughter was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him, “Who are you ?” He said, “I am Sudhanvan, of the line of Angiras”. When we asked him about the limits of the world, we said to him, “Where were the descendants of Pariksit ?” And I ask you, Yajnavalkya, where were the descendants of Pariksit ? (Tell me) where were the descendants of Pariksit ?’

III-iii-2: Yajnavalkya said, ‘The Gandharva evidently told you that they went where the performers of the horse sacrifice go’. ‘And where do the performers of the horse sacrifice go ?’ ‘Thirty-two times the space covered by the sun’s chariot in a day makes this world; around it, covering twice the area, is the earth; around the earth, covering twice the area, is the ocean. Now, as is the edge of a razor, or the wing of a fly, so is there just that much opening at the junction (of the two halves of the cosmic shell). (Through that they go out.) Fire, in the form of a falcon, delivered them to the air; the air, putting them in itself, took them where the (previous) performers of the horse sacrifice were’. Thus did the Gandharva praise the air. Therefore the air is the diversity of individuals, and the air is the aggregate. He who knows it as such conquers further death. Thereupon Bhujyu, the grandson of Lahya, kept silent.

III-iv-1: Then Usata, the son of Chakra, asked him. ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct – the self that is within all.’ ‘This is your self that is within all’. ‘Which is within all, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘That which breathes through the Prana is your self that is within all. That which moves downwards through the Apana is your self that is within all. That which pervades through the Vyana is your self that is within all. That which goes out through the Udana is your self that is within all. This is your self that is within all.’

III-iv-2: Usata, the son of Chakra, said, ‘You have indicated it as one may say that a cow is such and such, or a horse is such and such. Explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct – the self that is within all’. ‘This is your self that is within all’. ‘Which is within all, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘You cannot see that which is the witness of vision; you cannot hear that which is the hearer of hearing; you cannot think that which is the thinker of thought; you cannot know that which is the knower of knowledge. This is your self that is within all; everything else but this is perishable.’ Thereupon Usata, the son of Chakra, kept silent.

iii-v-1: Then Kahola, the son of Kusitaka, asked him, ‘Yajnavalkya’, said he, ‘explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct – the self that is within all’. ‘This is your self that is within all’. ‘Which is within all, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘That which transcends hunger and thirst, grief, delusion, decay and death. Knowing this very Self the Brahmanas renounce the desire for sons, for wealth and for the worlds, and lead a mendicant’s life. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth, and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds, for both these are but desires. Therefore the knower of Brahman, having known all about scholarship, should try to live upon that strength which comes of knowledge; having known all about this strength and scholarship, he becomes meditative; having known all about both meditativeness and its opposite, he becomes a knower of Brahman. How does that knower of b behave ? Howsoever he may behave, he is just such. Except this, everything is perishable.’ Thereupon Kahola, the son of Kusitaka, kept silent.

iii-vi-1: Then Gargi, the daughter of Vacaknu, asked him, ‘Yajnavalkya’, she said, ‘if all this is pervaded by water, by what is water pervaded ?’ ‘By air, O Gargi’. ‘By what is air pervaded?’ ‘By the sky, O Gargi’. ‘By what is the sky pervaded ?’ ‘By the world of the Gandharvas, O Gargi’. ‘By what is the world of the Gandharvas pervaded ?’ ‘By the sun, O Gargi.’ ‘By what is the sun pervaded ?’ ‘By the moon, O Gargi.’ ‘By what is the moon pervaded ?’ ‘By the stars, O Gargi’. ‘By what are the stars pervaded ?’ ‘By the world of the gods, O Gargi’. ‘By what is the world of the gods pervaded ?’ ‘By the world of Indra, O Gargi’. By what is the world of Indra pervaded?’ ‘By the world of Viraj, O Gargi’. ‘By what is the world of Viraj pervaded?’ ‘ By the world of Hiranyagarbha, O Gargi’. ‘By what is the world of Hiranyagarbha pervaded ?’ He said, ‘Do not, O Gargi, push your inquiry too far, lest your head should fall off. You are questioning about a deity that should not be reasoned about. Do not, O Gargi, push your inquiry too far.’ Thereupon Gargi, the daughter of Vacaknu, kept silent.

III-vii-1: Then Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, asked him. ‘Yajnavalkya’, said, ‘in Madra we lived in the house of Patanchala Kapya (descendant of Kapi), studying the scriptures on sacrifices. His wife was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him who he was. He said, “Kabandha, the son of Atharvan”. He said to Patanchala Kapya and those who studied the scriptures on sacrifices, “Hapya, do you know that Sutra by which this life, the next life and all beings are held together ?” Patanchala Kapya said, “I do not know it, sir”. The Gandharva said to him and the students, “Kapya, do you know that Internal Ruler who controls this and the next life and all beings from within ?” Patanchala Kapya said, “I do not know Him, sir”. The Gandharva said to him and the students, “He who knows that Sutra and that Internal Ruler as above indeed knows Brahman, knows the worlds, knows the gods, knows the Vedas, knows beings, knows the self, and knows everything”. He explained it all to them. I know it. If you, Yajnavalkya, do not know that Sutra and that Internal Ruler, and still take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman, your head shall fall off’. ‘I know, O Gautama, that Sutra and that Internal Ruler’. ‘Any one can say, “I know, I know”. Tell us what you know.’

III-vii-2: He said, ‘Vayu, O Gautama, is that Sutra. Through this Sutra or Vayu this and the next life and all beings are held together. Therefore, O Gautama, when a man dies, they say that his limbs have been loosened, for they are held together, O Gautama, by the Sutra or Vayu.’ ‘Quite so, Yajnavalkya. Now describe the Internal Ruler.’

III-vii-3: He who inhabits the earth, but is within it, whom the earth does not know, whose body is the earth, and who controls the earth from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-4: He who inhabits water, but is within it, whom water does not know, whose body is water, and who controls water from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-5: He who inhabits fire, but is within it, whom fire does not know, whose body is fire, and who controls fire from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-6: He who inhabits the sky, but is within it, whom the sky does not know, whose body is the sky, and who controls the sky from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-7: He who inhabits air, but is within it, whom air does not know, whose body is air, and who controls air from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-8: He who inhabits heaven, but is within it, whom heaven does not know, whose body is heaven, and who controls heaven from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-9: He who inhabits the sun, but is within it, whom the sun does not know, whose body is the sun, and who controls the sun from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-10: He who inhabits the quarters, but is within it, whom the quarters does not know, whose body is the quarters, and who controls the quarters from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-11: He who inhabits the moon and stars, but is within it, whom the moon and stars does not know, whose body is the moon and stars, and who controls the moon and stars from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-12: He who inhabits the ether, but is within it, whom the ether does not know, whose body is the ether, and who controls the ether from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-13: He who inhabits darkness, but is within it, whom darkness does not know, whose body is darkness, and who controls darkness from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-14: He who inhabits light, but is within it, whom light does not know, whose body is light, and who controls light from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the gods. Now with reference to the beings.

III-vii-15: He who inhabits all beings, but is within it, whom no being knows, whose body is all beings, and who controls all beings from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the beings. Now with reference to the body.

III-vii-16: He who inhabits the nose, but is within it, whom the nose does not know, whose body is the nose, and who controls the nose from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-17: He who inhabits the organ of speech, but is within it, whom the organ of speech does not know, whose body is the organ of speech, and who controls the organ of speech from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-18: He who inhabits the eye, but is within it, whom the eye does not know, whose body is the eye, and who controls the eye from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-19: He who inhabits the ear, but is within it, whom the ear does not know, whose body is the ear, and who controls the ear from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-20: He who inhabits the mind (Manas), but is within it, whom the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, and who controls the mind from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-21: He who inhabits the skin, but is within it, whom the skin does not know, whose body is the skin, and who controls the skin from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-22: He who inhabits the intellect, but is within it, whom the intellect does not know, whose body is the intellect, and who controls the intellect from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

III-vii-23: He who inhabits the organ of generation, but is within it, whom the organ of generation does not know, whose body is the organ of generation, and who controls the organ of generation from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. He is never seen, but is the Witness; He is never heard, but is the Hearer; He is never thought, but is the Thinker; He is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other witness but Him, no other hearer but Him, no other thinker but Him, no other knower but Him. He is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. Everything else but Him is mortal.’ Thereupon Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, kept silent.

III-viii-1: Then the daughter of Vachaknu said, ‘Revered Brahmans, I shall him two questions, Should he answer me those, none of you can ever beat him in describing Brahman.’ ‘Ask, O Gargi’.

III-viii-2: She said, ‘I (shall ask) you (two questions). As a man of Banaras or the King of Videha, scion of a warlike dynasty, might string his unstrung bow and appear close by, carrying in his hand two bamboo-tipped arrows highly painful to the enemy, even so, O Yajnavalkya, do I confront you with two questions. Answer me those’. ‘Ask, O Gargi’.

III-viii-3: She said, ‘By what, O Yajnavalkya, is that pervaded which is above heaven and below the earth, which is this heaven and earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be ?’

III-viii-4: He said, ‘That, O Gargi, which is above heaven and below the earth, which is this heaven and earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be, is pervaded by the Unmanifested ether.’

III-viii-5: She said, ‘I bow to you, Yajnavalkya, who have fully answered this question of mine. Now be ready for the other question.’ ‘Ask, O Gargi”.

III-viii-6: She said, ‘By what, O Yajnavalkya, is that pervaded which is above heaven and below the earth, which is this heaven and earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be ?’

III-viii-7: He said, ‘That, O Gargi, which is above heaven and below the earth, which is this heaven and earth as well as between them, and which they say was, is and will be, is pervaded by the Unmanifested ether alone.’ ‘By what is the Unmanifested ether pervaded?’

III-viii-8: He said: O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman say, this Immutable (Brahman) is that. It is neither gross nor minute, neither short nor long, neither red colour nor oiliness, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor ether, unattached, neither savour nor odour, without eyes or ears, without the vocal organ or mind, non-luminous, without the vital force or mouth, not a measure, and without interior or exterior. It does not eat anything, nor is It eaten by anybody.

III-viii-9: Under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, the sun and moon are held in their positions; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, heaven and earth maintain their positions; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, moments, Muhurtas, days and nights, fortnights, months, seasons and years are held in their respective places; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, some rivers flow eastward from the White Mountains, others flowing westward continue in that direction, and still others keep to their respective courses; under the mighty rule of this Immutable, O Gargi, men praise those that give, the gods depend on the sacrificer, and the manes on independent offerings (Darvihoma).

III-viii-10: He, O Gargi, who in this world, without knowing this Immutable, offers oblations in the fire, performs sacrifices and undergoes austerities even for many thousand years, finds all such acts but perishable; he, O Gargi, who departs from this world without knowing this Immutable, is miserable. But he, O Gargi, who departs from this world after knowing this Immutable, is a knower of Brahman.

III-viii-11: This Immutable, O Gargi, is never seen but is the Witness; It is never heard, but is the Hearer; It is never thought, but is the Thinker; It is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other witness but This, no other hearer but This, no other thinker but This, no other knower but This. By this Immutable, O Gargi, is the (Unmanifested) ether pervaded.

III-viii-12: She said, ‘Revered Brahmans, you should consider yourselves fortunate if you can get off from him through salutations. Never shall any of you beat him in describing Brahman’. Then the daughter of Vachaknu kept silent.

III-ix-1: Then Vidagdha, the son of Sakala, asked him. ‘How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ Yajnavalkya decided it through this (group of Mantras known as) Nivid (saying), ‘As many as are indicated in the Nivid of the Visvadevas – three hundred and three, and three thousand and three’. ‘Very well’, said Sakalya, ‘how many gods exactly are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘Thirty-three’. ‘Very well’, said the other, ‘how many gods exactly are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘six’. ‘Very well’, said Sakalya, ‘how many gods exactly are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘Three’. ‘Very well’, said the other, ‘how many gods exactly are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘Two’. ‘Very well’, said Sakalya, ‘how many gods exactly are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘One and a half’. ‘Very well’, said Sakalya, ‘how many gods exactly are there, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘One’. ‘Very well’, said Sakalya, ‘which are those three hundred and three and three thousand and three ?’

III-ix-2: Yajnavalkya said, ‘these are but the manifestation of them, but there are only thirty-three gods.’ ‘Which are those thirty-three ?’ ‘The eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras and the twelve Adityas – these are thirty-one and Indra and Prajapati make up the thirty-three’.

III-ix-3: ‘Which are the Vasus /’ ‘Fire, the earth, air, the sky, the sun, heaven, the moon and the stars – these are the Vasus, for in these all this is placed; therefore they are called Vasus.’

III-ix-4: ‘Which are the Rudras ?’ ‘The ten organs in the human body, with the mind as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they make (one’s relatives) weep. Because they then make them weep, therefore they are called Rudras.’

III-ix-5: ‘Which are the Adityas ?’ ‘The twelve months (are parts) of a year; these are the Adityas, for they go taking all this with them. Because they go taking all this with them, therefore they are called Adityas.’

III-ix-6: ‘Which is Indra, and which is Prajapati ?’ ‘The cloud itself is Indra, and the sacrifice is Prajapati’. ‘Which is the cloud ?’ ‘Thunder (strength).’ ‘Which is the sacrifice ?’ ‘Animals’.

III-ix-7: ‘Which are the six (gods) ?’ ‘Fire, the earth, air, the sky, the sun, and heaven – these are the six. Because all those (gods) are (comprised in) these six.’

III-ix-8: ‘Which are the three gods ?’ ‘These three worlds alone, because in these all those gods are comprised.’ ‘Which are the two gods ?’ ‘Matter and the vital force.’ ‘Which are the one and a half ?’ ‘This (air) that blows.’

III-ix-9: ‘Regarding this some say, ‘Since the air blows as one substance, how can it be one and a half ?’ ‘ It is one and a half because through its presence all this attains surpassing glory’. ‘Which is the one god ?’ ‘The vital force (Hiranyagarbha); it is Brahman, which is called Tyat (that).’

III-ix-10: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is the earth, whose instrument of vision is fire, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the body. Go on, Sakalya.’ ‘Who is his deity (cause) ?’ ‘Nectar (chyle)’, said he.

III-ix-11: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is lust, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with lust. Go on, Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Women’, said he.

III-ix-12: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is colours, whose instrument of vision is the eye, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is in the sun. Go on Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Truth (the eye),’ said he.

III-ix-13: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is the ether, whose instrument of vision is the ear, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the ear and with the time of hearing. Go on, Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘The quarters’, said he.

III-ix-14: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is darkness, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with shadow (ignorance). Go on, Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity?’ ‘Death’, said he.

III-ix-15: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is (particular) colours, whose instrument of vision is the eye, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is in a looking-glass. Go on, Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘The vital force’, said he.

III-ix-16: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is water, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is in water. Go on, Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Varuna (rain)’, said he.

III-ix-17: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is the seed, whose instrument of vision is the intellect, whose light is the Manas, and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs, knows truly, O Yajnavalkya’. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the son. Go on, Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Prajapati (the father)’, said he.

III-ix-18: ‘Sakalya’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘have these Vedic scholars made you their instrument for burning charcoals ?’

III-ix-19: ‘Yajnavalkya’, said Sakalya, ‘is it because you know Brahman that you have thus flouted these Vedic scholars of Kuru and Panchala ?’ ‘I know the quarters with their deities and supports’. ‘If you know the quarters with their deities and supports —

III-ix-20: ‘What deity are you identified with in the east ?’ ‘With the deity, sun’. ‘On what does the sun rest ?’ ‘On the eye’. ‘On what does the eye rest ?’ ‘On colours, for one sees colours with the eye’. ‘On what do colours rest ?’ ‘On the heart (mind)’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘for one knows colours through the heart; it is on the heart that colours rest’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

III-ix-21: ‘What deity are you identified with in the south ?’ ‘With the deity, Yama (the god of justice)’. On what does Yama rest ?’ ‘On the sacrifice’. ‘On what does the sacrifice rest ?’ ‘On the remuneration (of the priests).’ ‘On what does the remuneration rest ?’ ‘On faith, because whenever a man has faith, he gives remuneration to the priests; therefore it is on faith that the remuneration rests’. ‘On what does faith rest ?’ ‘On the heart’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘for one knows faith through the heart; therefore it is on the heart that faith rests’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

III-ix-22: ‘What deity are you identified with in the west ?’ ‘With the deity, Varuna (the god of rain)’. ‘On what does Varuna rest ?’ ‘On water’. ‘On what does water rest ?’ ‘On the seed’. ‘On what does the seed rest ?’ ‘On the heart. Therefore do they say of a new-born child closely resembles (his father), that he has sprung from (his father’s) heart, as it were – that he has been made out of (his father’s) heart, as it were. Therefore it is on the heart that the seed rests’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

III-ix-23: ‘What deity are you identified with in the north ?’ ‘With the deity, Soma (the moon and the creeper)’ ‘On what does Soma rest ?’ ‘On initiation’. ‘On what does initiation rest ?’ ‘On truth. Therefore do they say to one initiated, “Speak the truth”; for it is on truth that initiation rests’. ‘On what does truth rest ?’ ‘On the heart’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘for one knows truth through the heart; therefore it is on the heart that truth rests’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

III-ix-24: ‘What deity are you identified with in the fixed direction (above) ?’ ‘With the deity, fire’. ‘On what does fire rest ?’ ‘On speech’. ‘On what does speech rest ?’ ‘On the heart’. ‘On what does the heart rest ?’

III-ix-25: ‘You ghost’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘when you think the heart is elsewhere than in us, (then the body is dead). Should it be elsewhere than in us, dogs would eat this body, or birds tear it to pieces’.

III-ix-26: On what do the body and the heart rest ?’ ‘On the Prana’. ‘On what does the Prana rest ?’ ‘On the Apana.’ ‘On what does the Apana rest ?’ ‘On the Vyana.’ ‘On what does the Vyana rest ?’ ‘On the Udana’. ‘On what does the Udana rest ?’ ‘On the Samana’. This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, not this’. It is imperceptible, for it is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered – It never feels pain, and never suffers injury. ‘These are the eight abodes, the eight instruments of vision, the eight deities and the eight beings. I ask you of that Being who is to be known only from the Upanishads, who definitely projects those beings and withdraws them into Himself, and who is at the same time transcendent. If you cannot clearly tell me of Him, your head shall fall off’. Sakalya did not know Him; his head fell off; and robbers snatched away his bones, mistaking them for something else.

III-ix-27: Then he said, ‘Revered Brahmanas, whichsoever amongst you wishes may interrogate me or all of you may. Or I shall question whichsoever amongst you wishes, or all of you’. The Brahmanas did not dare.

III-ix-28(1): He asked them through these verses: As a large tree, so indeed is a man. (This is) true. His hair is its leaves, his skin its outer bark.

III-ix-28(2): It is from his skin that blood flows, and from the bark sap. Therefore when a man is wounded, blood flows, as sap from a tree is injured.

III-ix-28(3): His flesh is its inner bark, and his tendons its innermost layer of bark; both are tough. His bones lie under, as does its wood; his marrow is comparable to its pith.

III-ix-28(4): If a tree, after it is felled, springs again from its root in a newer form, from what root indeed does man spring forth after he is cut off by death ?

III-ix-28(5): Do not say, ‘From the seed’. (for) it is produced in a living man. A tree springs also from the seed; after it is dead it certainly springs again (from the seed as well).

III-ix-28(6): If someone pulls out a tree with its root, it no more sprouts. From what root does a man spring forth after he is cut off by death ?

III-ix-28(7): If you think he is ever born, I say, no, he is again born. Now who should again bring him forth ? — Knowledge, Bliss, Brahman, the supreme goal of the dispenser of wealth as well as of him who has realised Brahman and lives in It.

IV-i-1: Om. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, took his seat, when there came Yajnavalkya. Janaka said to him, ‘Yajnavalkya, what has brought you here ? To have some animals, or to hear some subtle questions asked ?’ ‘Both, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya.

IV-i-2: ‘Let me hear what any one of your teachers may have told you’. ‘Jitvan, the son of Silina, has told me that the organ of speech (fire) is Brahman’. ‘As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Silina said this – that the organ of speech is Brahman, for what can a person have who cannot speak? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?’ ‘No, he did not’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya’. ‘The organ of speech is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as intelligence’. ‘What is intelligence, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The organ of speech itself, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘through the organ of speech, O Emperor, friend is known; The Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharvangirasa, (Vedic) history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations, (the effects of) sacrifices, (of) offering oblations in the fire and (of) giving food and drink, this world and the next, and all beings are known through the organ of speech alone, O Emperor. The organ of speech, O Emperor, is the supreme Brahman. The organ of speech never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it, all beings eagerly come to him, and being a god, he attains the gods.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’, said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’.

IV-i-3: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. ‘Udanka, the son of Sulba, has told me that the vital force (Vayu) is Brahman’. ‘As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Sulba said this – that the vital force is Brahman, for what can a person have who does not live ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No, he did not’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya’. ‘The vital force is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as dear’. ‘What is dearness, Yajnavalkya ?’ The vital force itself, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya; ‘for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor, a man performs sacrifices for one for whom they should not be performed, and accepts gifts one from whom they should not be accepted, and it is for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor, that one runs the risk of one’s life in any quarter one may go to. The vital force, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The vital force never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it, all beings eagerly come to him, and being a god, he attains the gods’. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’, said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’.

IV-i-4: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. ‘Barku, the son of Vrsna, has told me that the eye (sun) is Brahman’. ‘As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Vrsna said this – that the eye is Brahman. For what can a person have who cannot see ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No, he did not’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya’. ‘The eye is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as truth’. ‘What is truth, Yajnavalkya?’ ‘’The eye itself, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya; if a person, O Emperor, says to one who has seen with his eyes, “Have you seen ?” and the latter answers, “Yes, I have”, then it is true. The eye, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The eye never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods’. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’, said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’.

IV-i-5: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. ‘Gardabhivipita, of the line of Bharadvaja, has told me that the ear (the quarters) is Brahman’. ‘As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the descendant of Bharadvaja said this – that the ear is Brahman. For what can a person have who cannot hear ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No, he did not’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya’. ‘The ear is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as infinite’. ‘What is infinity, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The quarters themselves, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya; ‘therefore, O Emperor, to whatever direction one may go, one never reaches its end. (Hence) the quarters are infinite. The quarters, O Emperor, are the ear, and the ear, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The ear never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods’. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’, said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’.

IV-i-6: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. ‘Satyakama, the son of Jabala, has told me that the Manas (here, the moon) is Brahman’. ‘As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Jabala said this – that the Manas is Brahman. For what can a person have without the Manas ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No, he did not’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya’. ‘The Manas is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as bliss’. ‘What is bliss, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The manas itself, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya; ‘with the Manas, O Emperor, a man (fancies and) woos a woman. A son resembling him is born of her, and he is the cause of bliss. The Manas, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The Manas never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods’. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’, said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’.

IV-i-7: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. ‘Vidagdha, the son of Sakala, has told me that the heart (mind, here, Prajapati ) is Brahman’. ‘As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Sakala said this – that the heart is Brahman. For what can a person have without the heart ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No, he did not’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya’. ‘The heart is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as stability’. ‘What is stability, Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The heart itself, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya; ‘the heart, O Emperor, is the abode of all beings, and the heart, O Emperor, is the support of all beings; on the heart, O Emperor, all beings rest; the heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The heart never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods’. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’, said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’.

IV-ii-1: Janaka, Emperor of Videha, rose from his lounge and approaching Yajnavalkya said, ‘Salutations to you, Yajnavalkya, please instruct me’. Yajnavalkya replied, ‘As one wishing to go a long distance, O Emperor, should secure a chariot or a boat, so have you fully equipped your mind with so many secret names (of Brahman). You are likewise respected and wealthy, and you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads; (but) where will you go when you are separated from this body ?’ ‘I do not know, sir, where I shall go’. ‘Then I will tell you where you will go’. ‘Tell me, sir’.

IV-ii-2: This being who is in the right eye is named Indha. Though he is Indha, he is indirectly called Indra, for the gods have a fondness, as it were, for indirect names, and hate to be called directly.

IV-ii-3: The human form that is in the left eye is his wife, Viraj (matter). The space that is within the heart is their place of union. Their food is the lump of blood (the finest essence of what we eat) in the heart. Their wrap is the net-like structure in the heart. Their road for moving is the nerve that goes upward from the heart; it is like a hair split into a thousand parts. In this body there are nerves called Hita, which are placed in the heart. Through these the essence of our food passes as it moves on. Therefore the subtle body has finer food than the gross body.

IV-ii-4: Of the sage (who is identified with the vital force), the east is the eastern vital force, the south the southern vital force, the west the western vital force, the north the northern vital force, the direction above the upper vital force, the direction below the nether vital force, and all the quarters the different vital forces. This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, Not this’, ‘It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered – It never feels pain, and never suffers injury. You have attained That which is free from fear, O Janaka’, said Yajnavalkya. ‘Revered Yajnavalkya’, said Emperor Janaka, ‘may That which is free from fear be yours, for you have made That which is free from fear known to us. Salutations to you ! Here is this (empire of) Videha, as well as myself at your service !’

IV-iii-1: Yajnavalkya went to Janaka, Emperor of Videha. He thought he would not say anything. Now Janaka and Yajnavalkya had once talked on the Agnihotra, and Yajnavalkya had offered him a boon. He had begged the liberty of asking any questions he liked; and Yajnavalkya had granted him the boon. So it was the e who first asked him.

IV-iii-2: ‘Yajnavalkya, what serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The light of the sun, O Emperor’, said Yajnavalkya; ‘it is through the light of the sun that he sits, goes out, works and returns’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

IV-iii-3: ‘When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The moon serves as his light. It is through the light of the moon that he sits, goes out, works and returns’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

IV-iii-4: ‘When the sun and the moon have set, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The fire serves as his light. It is through the fire that he sits, goes out, works and returns’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

IV-iii-5: When the sun and the moon have both set, and the fire has gone out, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘Speech (sound) serves as his light. It is through the light of speech that he sits, goes out, works and returns. Therefore, O Emperor, even when one’s own hand is not clearly visible, if a sound is uttered, one manages to go there.’. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

IV-iii-6: When the sun and the moon have both set, the fire has gone out, and speech has stopped, Yajnavalkya, what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The self serves as his light. It is through the light of the self that he sits, goes out, works and returns.’ ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya’.

IV-iii-7: ‘Which is the self ?’ ‘This infinite entity (Purusha) that is identified with the intellect and is in the midst of the organs, the (self-effulgent) light within the heart (intellect). Assuming the likeness (of the intellect), it moves between the two worlds; it thinks, as it were, and shakes, as it were. Being identified with dream, it transcends this world – the forms of death (ignorance etc.).’

IV-iii-8: That man, when he is born, or attains a body, is connected with evils (the body and organs); and when he dies, or leaves the body, he discards those evils.

IV-iii-9: That man only two abodes, this and the next world. The dream state, which is the third, is at the junction (of the two). Staying at that junction, he surveys the two abodes, this and the next world. Whatever outfit he may have for the next world, providing himself with that he sees both evils (sufferings) and joys. When he dreams, he takes away a little of (the impressions of) this all-embracing world (the waking state), himself puts the body aside and himself creates (a dream body in its place), revealing his own lustre by his own light – and dreams. In this state the man himself becomes the light.

IV-iii-10: There are no chariots, nor animals to be yoked to them, nor roads there, but he creates the chariots, the animals and the roads. There are no pleasures, joys, or delights there, but he creates the pleasures, joys and delights. There are no pools, tanks, or rivers there, but he creates the pools, tanks and rivers. For he is the agent.

IV-iii-11: Regarding this there are the following pithy verses: ‘The radiant infinite being (Purusha) who moves alone, puts the body aside in the dream state, and remaining awake himself and taking the shining functions of the organs with him, watches those that are asleep. Again he comes to the waking state.

IV-iii-12: ‘The radiant infinite being who is immortal and moves alone, preserves the unclean nest (the body) with the help of the vital force, and roams out of the nest. Himself immortal, he goes wherever he likes.

IV-iii-13: ‘In the dream world, the shining one, attaining higher and lower states, puts forth innumerable forms. He seems to be enjoying himself in the company of women, or laughing, or even seeing frightful things.

IV-iii-14: ‘All see his sport, but none sees him’. They say, ‘Do not wake him up suddenly’. If he does not find the right organ, the body becomes difficult to doctor. Others, however, say that the dream state of a man is nothing but the waking state, because he sees in dream only those things that he sees in the waking state. (This is wrong) In the dream state the man himself becomes the light. ‘I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation’.

IV-iii-15: After enjoying himself and roaming, and merely seeing (the result of) good and evil (in dream), he (stays) in a state of profound sleep, and comes back in the inverse order to his former condition, the dream state. He is untouched by whatever he sees in that state, for this infinite being is unattached. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation itself.’

IV-iii-16: After enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state, and merely seeing (the results of) good and evil, he comes back in the inverse order to his former condition, the waking state. He is untouched by whatever he sees in that state, for this infinite being is unattached. ‘It is just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation itself.’

IV-iii-17: After enjoying himself and roaming in the waking state, and merely seeing (the result of) good and evil, he comes back in the inverse order to his former condition, the dream state (or that of profound sleep).

IV-iii-18: As a great fish swims alternately to both the banks (of a river), eastern and western, so does this infinite being move to both these states, the dream and waking states.

IV-iii-19: As a hawk or a falcon flying in the sky becomes tired, and stretching its wings, is bound for its nest, so does this infinite being run for this state, where, falling asleep, he craves no desire and sees no dream.

IV-iii-20: In him are those nerves called Hita, which are as fine as a hair split into a thousand parts, and filled with white, blue, brown, green and red (serums). (They are the seat of the subtle body, in which impressions are stored). Now when (he feels) as if he were being killed or overpowered, or being pursued by an elephant, or falling into a pit, (in short) conjures up at the time through ignorance whatever terrible things he has experienced in the waking state, (that is the dream state). And when (he becomes) a god, as it were, or a king, as it were, thinks, ‘This (universe) is myself, who am all’, that is his highest state.

IV-iii-21: That is his form – beyond desires, free from evils and fearless. As a man, fully embraced by his beloved wife, does not know anything at all, either external or internal, so does this infinite being (self), fully embraced by the Supreme Self, not know anything at all, either external or internal. That is his form – in which all objects of desire have been attained and are but the self, and which is free from desire and devoid of grief.

IV-iii-22: In this state a father is no father, a mother no mother, worlds no worlds, the gods no gods, the Vedas no Vedas. In this state a thief is no thief, the killer of a noble Brahmana no killer, a Chandala no Chandala, a Pulkasa no Pulkasa, a monk no monk, a hermit no hermit. (This form of his) is untouched by good work and untouched by evil work, for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart (intellect).

IV-iii-23: That it does not see in that state is because, though seeing then, it does not see; for the vision of the witness can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can see.

IV-iii-24: That it does not smell in that state is because, though smelling then, it does not smell; for the smeller’s function of smelling can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can smell.

IV-iii-25: That it does not taste in that state is because, though tasting then, it does not taste; for the taster’s function of tasting can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can taste.

IV-iii-26: That it does not speak in that state is because, though speaking then, it does not speak; for the speaker’s function of speaking can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can speak.

IV-iii-27: That it does not hear in that state is because, though hearing then, it does not hear; for the listener’s function of hearing can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can hear.

IV-iii-28: That it does not think in that state is because, though thinking then, it does not think; for the thinker’s function of thinking can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can think.

IV-iii-29: That it does not touch in that state is because, though touching then, it does not touch; for the toucher’s function of touching can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can touch.

IV-iii-30: That it does not know in that state is because, though knowing then, it does not know; for the knower’s function of knowing can never be lost, because it is imperishable. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can know.

IV-iii-31: When there is something else, as it were, then one can see something, one can smell something, one can taste something, one can speak something, one can hear something, one can think something, one can touch something, or one can know something.

IV-iii-32: It becomes (transparent) like water, one, the witness, and without a second. This is the sphere )(state) of Brahman, O Emperor. Thus did Yajnavalkya instruct Janaka: This is its supreme attainment, this is its supreme glory, this is its highest world, this is its supreme bliss. On a particle of this very bliss other beings live.

IV-iii-33: He who is perfect of physique and prosperous among men, the ruler of others, and most lavishly supplied with all human enjoyments, represents greatest joy among men. This human joy multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the manes who have won that world of theirs. The joy of these manes who have won that world multiplied a hundred times makes one unit joy in the world of the celestial minstrels. This joy in the world of the celestial minstrels multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the gods by action – those who have attained their godhead by their actions. This joy of the gods by action multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the gods by birth, as also of one who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This joy of the gods by birth multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy in the world of Prajapati (Viraj), as well as one who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This joy in the world of Prajapati multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy in the world of Brahman (Hiranyagarbha), as well as of one who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This indeed is the supreme bliss. This is the state of Brahman, O Emperor, said Yajnavalkya. ‘I give you a thousand (cows), sir. Please instruct me further about liberation itself’. At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that the intelligent Emperor was constraining him to finish with all his conclusions.

IV-iii-34: After enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state, and merely seeing the effects of merits and demerits, he comes back, in the inverse order, to his former condition, the waking state.

IV-iii-35: Just as a cart, heavily loaded, goes on rumbling, so does the self that is in the body, being presided over by the Supreme Self, go making noises, when breathing becomes difficult.

IV-iii-36: When this (body) becomes thin – is emaciated through old age or disease – then, as a mango, or a fig, or a fruit of the Peepul tree is detached from its stalk, so does this infinite being, completely detaching himself from the parts of the body, again go, in the same way that he came, to particular bodies, for the unfoldment of his vital force.

IV-iii-37: Just as when a king is coming, the Ugras set against particular offences, the Sutas and the leaders of the village wait for him with varieties of food and drink and mansions ready, saying, ‘Here he comes, here he comes’, so for the person who knows about the results of his work, all the elements wait saying, ‘Here comes Brahman, here he comes’.

IV-iii-38: Just as when the king wishes to depart, the Ugras set against particular offences, the Sutas and the leaders of the village approach him, so do all the organs approach the departing man at the time of death, when breathing becomes difficult.

IV-iv-1: When this self becomes weak and senseless, as it were, the organs come to it. Completely withdrawing these particles of light, it comes to the heart. When the presiding deity of the eye turns back from all sides, the man fails to notice colour.

IV-iv-2: (The eye) becomes united (with the subtle body); then people say, ‘He does not see’. (The nose) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not smell’. (The tongue) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not taste’. (The vocal Organ) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not speak’. (The ear) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not hear’. (The Manas) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not think’. (The skin) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not touch’. (The intellect) becomes united; then they say, ‘He does not know’. The top of the heart brightens. Through that brightened top the self departs, either through the eye, or through the head, or through any other part of the body. When it departs, the vital force follows; when the vital force departs, all the organs follow. Then the self has particular consciousness, and goes to the body which is related to that consciousness. It is followed by knowledge, work and past experience.

IV-iv-3: Just as a leech supported on a straw goes to the end of it, takes hold of another support and contracts itself, so does the self throw this body aside – make it senseless – take hold of another support, and contract itself.

IV-iv-4: Just as a goldsmith takes apart a little quantity of gold and fashions another – a newer and better – form, so does the self throw this body away, or make it senseless, and make another – a newer and better – form suited to the manes or the celestial minstrels, or the gods, or Viraj, or Hiranyagarbha, or other beings.

IV-iv-5: That self is indeed Brahman, as also identified with the intellect, the Manas and the vital force, with the eyes and ears, with earth, water, air and the ether, with fire, and what is other than fire, with desire and the absence of desire, with anger and the absence of anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness, with everything -–identified, in fact, with this (what is perceived) and with that (what is inferred). As it does and acts, so it becomes; by doing good it becomes good, and by doing evil it becomes evil – it becomes virtuous through good acts and vicious through evil acts. Others, however, say, ‘The self is identified with desire alone. What it desires, it resolves; what it resolves, it works out; and what it works out, it attains.’

IV-iv-6: Regarding this there is the following pithy verse: ‘Being attached he, together with the work, attains that result to which his subtle body or mind is attached. Exhausting the results of whatever work he did in this life, he returns from that world to this for (fresh) work’. Thus does the man who desires (transmigrate). But the man who does not desire (never transmigrates). Of him who is without desires, who is free from desires, the objects of whose desire have been attained, and to whom all objects of desire are but the Self – the organs do not depart. Being but Brahman, he is merged in Brahman.

IV-iv-7: Regarding this there is this pithy verse: ‘When all the desires that dwell in his heart (mind) are gone, then he, having been mortal, becomes immortal, and attains Brahman in this very body’. Just as the lifeless Slough of a snake is cast off and lies in the ant-hill, so does this body lie. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal, (becomes) the Prana (Supreme Self), Brahman, the Light. ‘I give you a thousand (cows), sir’, said Janaka, Emperor of Videha.

IV-iv-8: Regarding this there are the following pithy verses: the subtle, extensive, ancient way has touched (been reached by) me. (Nay) I have realised it myself. Through that sages – the knowers of Brahman – (also) go to the heavenly sphere (liberation) after the fall of this body, being freed (even while living).

IV-iv-9: Some speak of it as white, others as blue, grey, green, or red. This path is realised by a Brahmana (knower of Brahman). Any other knower of Brahman who has done good deeds and is identified with the Supreme Light, (also) treads this path.

IV-iv-10: Into blinding darkness (ignorance) enter those who worship ignorance (rites). Into greater darkness, as it were, than that enter those who are devoted to knowledge (the ceremonial portion of the Vedas).

IV-iv-11: Miserable are those worlds enveloped by (that) blinding darkness (ignorance). To them, after death, go those people who are ignorant and unwise.

IV-iv-12: If a man knows the Self as ‘I am this’, then desiring what and for whose sake will he suffer in the wake of the body ?

IV-iv-13: He who has realised and intimately known the Self that has entered this perilous and inaccessible place (the body), is the maker of the universe, for he is the maker of all, (all is) his Self, and he again is indeed the Self (of all).

IV-iv-14: Being in this very body we have somehow known that (Brahman). If not, (I should have been) ignorant, (and) great destruction (would have taken place). Those who know It become immortal, while others attain misery alone.

IV-iv-15: When a man after (receiving instructions from a teacher) directly realises this effulgent Self, the Lord of all that has been and will be, he no longer wishes to hide himself from it.

IV-iv-16: Below which the year with its days rotates, upon that immortal Light of all lights the gods meditate as longevity.

IV-iv-17: That in which the five groups of five and the (subtle) ether are placed, that very Atman I regard as the immortal Brahman. Knowing (Brahman) I am immortal.

IV-iv-18: Those who have known the Vital Force of the vital force, the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, and the Mind of the mind, have realised the ancient, primordial Brahman.

IV-iv-19: Through the mind alone (It) is to be realised. There is no difference whatsoever in It. He goes from death to death, who sees difference, as it were, in It.

IV-iv-20: It should be realised in one form only, (for) It is unknowable and eternal. The Self is taintless, beyond the (subtle) ether, birthless, infinite and constant.

IV-iv-21: The intelligent aspirant after Brahman, knowing about this alone, should attain intuitive knowledge. (He) should not think of too many words, for it is particularly fatiguing to the organ of speech.

IV-iv-22: That great, birthless Self which is identified with the intellect and is in the midst of the organs, lies in the ether that is within the heart. It is the controller of all, the lord of all, the ruler of all. It does not grow better through good work nor worse through bad work. It is the lord of all, It is the ruler of all beings, It is the protector of all beings. It is the bank that serves as the boundary to keep the different worlds apart. The Brahmanas seek to know It through the study of the Vedas, sacrifices, charity, and austerity consisting in a dispassionate enjoyment of sense-objects. Knowing It alone, one becomes a sage. Desiring this world (the Self) alone, monks renounce their homes. This is (the reason for it); The ancient sages, it is said, did not desire children (thinking), ‘What shall we achieve through children, we who have attained this Self, this world (result).’ They, it is said, renounced their desire for sons, for wealth and for the worlds, and lived a mendicant’s life. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth, and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds, for both these are but desires. This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, Not this’. It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered – It never feels pain, and never suffers injury. (it is but proper) that the sage is never overtaken by these two thoughts, ‘I did an evil act for this’, ‘I did a good act for this’. He conquers both of them. Things done or not done do not trouble him.

IV-iv-23: This has been expressed by the following hymn: This is the eternal glory of a knower of Brahman: it neither increases nor decreases through work. (Therefore) one should know the nature of that alone. Knowing it one is not touched by evil action. Therefore he who knows it as such becomes self-controlled, calm, withdrawn into himself, enduring and concentrated, and sees the self in his own self (body); he sees all as the Self. Evil does not overtake him, but he transcends all evil. Evil does not trouble him, (but) he consumes all evil. He becomes sinless, taintless, free from doubts, and a Brahmana (knower of Brahman). This is the world of Brahman, O Emperor, and you have attained it – said Yajnavalkya. ‘I give you sir, the empire of Videha, and myself too with it, to wait upon you’.

IV-iv-24: That great, birthless Self is the eater of food and the giver of wealth (the fruits of one’s work). He who knows It as such receives wealth (those fruits).

IV-iv-25: That great, birthless Self is undecaying, immortal, undying, fearless and Brahman (infinite). Brahman is indeed fearless. He who knows It as such certainly becomes the fearless Brahman.

IV-v-1: Now Yajnavalkya had two wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani. Of these Maitreyi used to discuss Brahman, (while) Katyayani had then only an essentially feminine outlook. One day Yajnavalkya, with a view to embracing life –

IV-v-2: ‘O Maitreyi, my dear’, said Yajnavalkya, ‘I am going to renounce this life for monasticism. Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani’.

IV-v-3: Thereupon Maitreyi said, ‘Sir, if indeed this whole earth full of wealth be mine, shall I be immortal through that, or not ?’ ‘No’, replied Yajnavalkya, ‘your life will be just like that of people who possess plenty of things, but there is no hope of immortality through wealth.’

IV-v-4: Then Maitreyi said, ‘What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal ? Tell me, sir, of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality).’

IV-v-5: Yajnavalkya said, ‘My dear, you have been my beloved (even before), and you have magnified what is after my heart. If you wish, my dear, I will explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate (upon its meaning).

IV-v-6: He said: ‘It is not for the sake of the husband, my dear, that he is loved, but for one’s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the wife, my dear, that she is loved, but for one’s own sake that she is loved. It is not for the sake of the sons, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth, my dear, that it is loved, but for one’s own sake that it is loved. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana, my dear, that he is loved, but for one’s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Kshatriya, my dear, that he is loved, but for one’s own sake that he is loved. It is not for the sake of worlds, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the gods, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of beings, my dear, that they are loved, but for one’s own sake that they are loved. It is not for the sake of all, my dear, that all is loved, but for one’s own sake that it is loved. The Self, my dear Maitreyi, should be realised – should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. When the Self, my dear, is realised by being heard of, reflected on and meditated upon, all this is known.

IV-v-7: The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. The Kshatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. Worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The gods oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The Vedas oust one who knows them as different from the Self. Beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. This Brahmana, this Kshatriya, these worlds, these gods, these Vedas, these beings and these all — are this Self.

IV-v-8: As, when a drum is beaten, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes.

IV-v-9: As, when a conch is blown, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

IV-v-10: As, when a Vina is played, one cannot distinguish its various particular notes, but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing.

IV-v-11: As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue, even so, my dear, the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharvangirasa, history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, pithy verses, aphorisms, elucidations, explanations, sacrifices, oblations in the fire, food, drink, this world, the next world and all beings are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self).

IV-v-12: As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water, as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours, as the tongue is the one goal of all savours, as the eye is the one goal of all colours , as the ear is the one goal of all sounds, as the Manas is the one goal of all deliberations, as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all sort of work, as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, as the anus is the one goal of all excretions, as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas.

IV-v-13: As a lump of salt is without interior or exterior, entire, and purely saline in taste, even so is the Self without interior or exterior, entire, and Pure Intelligence alone. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements, and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more consciousness. This is what I say, my dear. So said Yajnavalkya.

IV-v-14: Maitreyi said, ‘Just here you have led me into the midst of confusion, sir, I do not at all comprehend this’. He said, ‘Certainly, I am not saying anything confusing. This self is indeed immutable and indestructible, my dear’.

IV-v-15: Because when there is duality, as it were, then one sees something, one smells something, one tastes something, one speaks something, one hears something, one thinks something, one touches something, one knows something. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should one see and through what, what should one smell and through what, what should one taste and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one touch and through what, what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know that owing to which all this is known ? This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, Not this’. It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered – it never feels pain, and never suffers injury. Through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower ? So you have got the instruction, Maitreyi. This much indeed is (the means of) immortality, my dear. Saying this Yajnavalkya left.

IV-vi-1: Now the line of teachers: Pautimasya (received it) from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimasya. This Pautimasya from another Gaupavana. This Gaupavana from Kausika. Kausika from Kaundinya. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. Gautama –

IV-vi-2: From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. Anabhinlata from another of that name. He from a third Anabhimlata. This Anabhimlata from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava and Pracinayogya. They from Parasarya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. He from Bharadvaja and Gautama. Gautama from another Bharatvaja. He from another Parasarya. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. He from Kausikayani. Kausikayani –

IV-vi-3: From Ghrtakausika. Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana. He from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska. Asurayana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. He from Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya from Manti. Manti from Gautama. Gautama from another Gautama. He from Vatsya. Vatsya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. He from Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from Vidarbhi-kaundinya. He from Vatsanapat Babhrava. He from Pathin Saubhara. He from Ayasya Angirasa. He from Abhuti Tvastra. He from Visvarupa Tvastra. He from the Asvins. They from Dadhyac Atharvana. He from Atharvan Daiva. He from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana. He from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi. Ekarsi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyasri. Vyasti from Sanaru. Sanaru from Sanatana. Sanatana from Sanaga. Sanaga from Paramesthin (Viraj). He from Brahman (Hiranyabarbha). Brahman is self born. Salutation to Brahman.

V-i-1: Om. That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe), it remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. Om is the ether-Brahman – the eternal ether. ‘The ether containing air,’ says the son of Kauravyayani. It is the Veda, (so) the Brahmans (knowers of Brahman) know; (for) through it one knows what is to be known.

V-ii-1: Three classes of Prajapati’s sons lived a life of continence with their father, Prajapati (Viraj) – the gods, men and Asuras. The gods, on the completion of their term, said, ‘Please instruct us’. He told them the syllable ‘Da’ (and asked), ‘have you understood ?’ (They) said, ‘We have. You tell us: Control yourselves’. (He) said, ‘Yes, you have understood’.

V-ii-2: Then the men said to him, ‘Please instruct us’. He told them the same syllable ‘Da’ (and asked), ‘Have you understood ?’ (They) said, ‘We have. You tell us: Give’. (He) said, ‘Yes, you have understood’.

V-ii-3: Then the Asuras said to him, ‘Please instruct us’. He told them the same syllable ‘Da’ (and asked), ‘Have you understood ?’ (They) said, ‘We have. You tell us: Have compassion’. (He) said, ‘Yes, you have understood’. That very thing is repeated by the heavenly voice, the cloud, as ‘Da’, ‘Da’, ‘Da’: ‘Control yourselves’, ‘Give’, and ‘have compassion’. Therefore one should learn these three – self-control, charity and compassion.

V-iii-1: This is Prajapati – this heart (intellect). It is Brahman, it is everything. ‘Hridaya’ (heart) has three syllables. ‘Hr’ is one syllable. To him who knows as above, his own people and others bring (presents). ‘Da’ is another syllable. To him who knows as above, his own people and others give (their powers). ‘Ya’ is another syllable. He who knows as above goes to heaven.

V-iv-1: That (intellect-Brahman) was but this – Satya (gross and subtle) alone. He who knows this great, adorable, first-born (being) as the Satya-Brahman, conquers these worlds, and his (enemy) is thus conquered and becomes non-existent – he who knows this great, adorable, first-born (being) thus, as the Satya-Brahman, for Satya is indeed Brahman.

V-v-1: This (universe) was but water (liquid oblations connected with sacrifices) in the beginning. That water produced Satya. Satya is Brahman. Brahman (produced) Prajapati, and Prajapati the gods. Those gods meditate upon Satya alone. This (name) ‘Satya’ consists of three syllables: ‘Sacrifice’ is one syllable, ‘Ti’ is another syllable, and “Ya’ is the third syllable. The first and last syllables are truth. In the middle is untruth. This untruth is enclosed on either side by truth. (Hence) there is a preponderance of truth. One who knows as above is never hurt by untruth.

V-v-2: That which is Satya is that sun – the being who is in that orb and the being who is in the right eye. These two rest on each other. The former rests on the latter through the rays, and the latter rests on the former through the function of the eyes. When a man is about to leave the body, he sees the solar orb as clear. The rays no more come to him.

V-v-3: Of this being who is in the solar orb, the syllable ‘Bhur’ is the head, for there is one head, and there is this one syllable; the word ‘Bhuvar’ is the arms, for there are two arms, and there are these two syllables; the word ‘Svar’ is the feet, for there are two feet, and there are these two syllables. His secret name is ‘Ahar’. He who knows as above destroys and shuns evil.

V-v-4: Of this being who is in the right eye, the syllable ‘Bhur’ is the head, for there is one head, and there is this one syllable; the word ‘Bhuvar’ is the arms, for there are two arms, and there are these two syllables; the word ‘Svar’ is the feet, for there are two feet, and there are these two syllables. His secret name is ‘Aham’. He who knows as above destroys and shuns evil.

V-vi-1: This being identified with the mind and resplendent (is realised by the Yogins) within the heart like a grain of rice or barley. He is the lord of all, the ruler of all, and governs whatever there is.

V-vii-1: They say lightning is Brahman. It is called lightning (Vidyut) because it scatters (darkness). He who knows it as such – that lightning is Brahman – scatters evils (that are ranged against) him, for lightning is indeed Brahman.

V-viii-1: One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow (as it were). She has four teats – the sounds “Svaha’, ‘Vasat’, ‘Hanta’ and ‘Svadha’. The gods live on two of her teats – the sounds ‘Svaha’ and ‘Vasat’, men on the sound ‘Hanta’, and the manes on the sound ‘Svadha’. Her bull is the vital force, and her calf the mind.

V-ix-1: This fire that is within a man and digests the food that is eaten, is Vaisvanara. It emits this sound that one hears by stopping the ears thus. When a man is about to leave the body, he no more hears this sound.

V-x-1: When a man departs from this world, he reaches the air, which makes an opening there for him like the hole of a chariot-wheel. He goes upwards through that and reaches the sun, who makes an opening there for him like the hole of a tabor. He goes upwards through that and reaches the moon, who makes an opening there for him like the hole of a drum. He goes upwards through that and reaches a world free from grief and from cold. He lives there for eternal years.

V-xi-1: This indeed is excellent austerity that a man suffers when he is ill. He who knows as above wins an excellent world. This indeed is excellent austerity that a man after death is carried to the forest. He who knows as above wins an excellent world. This indeed is excellent austerity that a man after death is placed in the fire. He who knows as above wins an excellent world.

V-xii-1: Some say that food is Brahman. It is not so, for food rots without the vital force. Others say that the vital force is Brahman. It is not so, for the vital force dries up without food. But these two deities being united attain their highest. So Pratrda said to his father, ‘What good indeed can I do to one who knows like this, and what evil indeed can I do to him either?’ The father, with a gesture of the hand, said, ‘Of, no, Pratrda, for who would attain his highest by being identified with them ?’ Then he said to him this: ‘It is “Vi”. Food is “vi”, for all these creatures rest on food. It is “Ram”. The vital force is “Ram”, for all these creatures delight if there is the vital force’. On him who knows as above all creatures rest, and in him all creatures delight.

V-xiii-1: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Uktha (a hymn of praise). The vital force is the Uktha, for it raises this universe. From him who knows as above rises a son who is a knower of the vital force, and he achieves union with and abode in the same world as the Uktha.

V-xiii-2: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Yajus. The vital force is the Yajus, for all these beings are joined with one another if there is the vital force. All beings are joined for the eminence of him who knows as above, and he achieves union with and abode in the same world as the Yajus (vital force).

V-xiii-3: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Saman. The vital force is the Saman, for all these beings are united if there is the vital force. For him who knows as above all beings are united, and they succeed in bringing about his eminence, and he achieves union with abode in the same world as the Saman.

V-xiii-4: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Ksatra. The vital force is the Ksatra, for it is indeed the Ksatra. The vital force protects the body from wounds. He who knows as above attains this Ksatra (vital force) that has no other protector, and achieves union with and abode in the same world as the Ksatra.

V-xiv-1: ‘Bhumi’ (the earth), ‘Antariksa’ (sky) and ‘Dyaus’ (heaven) make eight syllables, and the first foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. So the above three worlds constitute the first foot of the Gayatri. He who knows the first foot of the Gayatri to be such wins as much as there is in those three worlds.

V-xiv-2: ‘Reah’, ‘Yajumsi’ and ‘Samani’ make eight syllables, and the second foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. So the above three Vedas constitute the second foot of the Gayatri. He who knows the second foot of the Gayatri to be such wins as much as that treasury of knowledge, the three Vedas, has to confer.

V-xiv-3: ‘Prana’, ‘Apana’ and ‘Vyana’ make eight syllables, and the third foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. So the above three forms of vital force constitute the third foot of the Gayatri. He who knows the third foot of the Gayatri to be such wins all the living beings that are in the universe. Now its Turiya, apparently visible, supramundane foot is indeed this – the sun that shines. ‘Turiya’ means the fourth. ‘Apparently visible foot’, because he is seen, as it were. ‘Supramundane’, because he shines on the whole universe as its overlord. He who knows the fourth foot of the Gayatri to be such shines in the same way with splendour and fame.

V-xiv-4: That Gayatri rests on this fourth, apparently visible, supramundane foot. That again rests on truth. The eye is truth, for the eye is indeed truth. Therefore if even today two persons come disputing, one saying, ‘I saw it’, and another, ‘I heard of it’, we believe him only who says, ‘I saw it’. That truth rests on strength. The vital force is strength. (Hence) truth rests on the vital force. Therefore they say strength is more powerful than truth. Thus the Gayatri rests on the vital force within the body. That Gayatri saved the Gayas. The organs are the Gayas; so it saved the organs. Now, because it saved the organs, therefore it is called the Gayatri. The Savitri that the teacher communicates to the pupil is no other than this. It saves the organs of him to whom it is communicated.

V-xiv-5: Some communicate (to the pupil) the Savitri that is Anustubh (saying), ‘speech is Anustubh; we shall impart that to him’. One should not do like that. One should communicate that Savitri which is the Gayatri. Even if a man who knows as above accepts too much as gift, as it were, it is not (enough) for even one foot of the Gayatri.

V-xiv-6: He who accepts these three worlds replete (with wealth), will be receiving (the results of knowing) only the first foot of the Gayatri. He who accepts as much as this treasury of knowledge, the Vedas (has to confer), will receive (the results of knowing) only its second foot. And he who accepts as much as (is covered by) all living beings, will receive (the results of knowing) only its third foot. With its fourth, apparently visible, supramundane foot – the sun that shines – is not to be counter balanced by any gift received. Indeed how could any one accept so much as gift ?

V-xiv-7: Its salutation: ‘O Gayatri, thou art one-footed, two-footed, there-footed and four-footed, and thou art without any feet, for thou art unattainable. Salutation to thee, the fourth, apparently visible, supramundane foot ! May the enemy never attain his object !’ (Should the knower of the Gayatri) bear hatred towards anybody, (he should) either (use this Mantra): ‘Such and such – way his desired object never flourish!’ – in which case that object of the person against whom he thus salutes the Gayatri, never flourishes – or (he may say), ‘May I attain that (cherished object) of his!’

V-xiv-8: On this Janaka, Emperor of Videha, is said to have told Budila, the son of Asvatarasva, ‘Well, you gave yourself out as a knower of the Gayatri; then why, alas, are you carrying (me) as an elephant ?’ He replied, ‘Because I did not know its mouth, O Emperor’. ‘Fire is its mouth. Even if they put a large quantity of fuel into the fire, it is all burnt up. Similarly, even if one who knows as above commits a great many sins, he consumes them all and becomes pure, cleansed, undecaying and immortal’.

V-xv-1: The face (nature) of Satya (Brahman) is hidden (as it were) with a golden vessel. O Pusan (nourisher of the world – the sun), remove it, so that I, whose reality is Satya, may see (the face). O Pusan, O solitary Rishi (seer or traveller), O Yama (controller), O Surya (sun), O son of Prajapati (God or Hiranyagarbha), take away thy rays, curb thy brightness. I wish to behold that most benignant form of thine. I myself am that person; and I am immortal. (When my body falls) may my vital force return to the air (cosmic force), and this body too, reduced to ashes, (go to the earth)! O fire, who art the syllable ‘Om’, O Deity of deliberations, recollect, recollect all that I have done, O Deity of deliberations, recollect, recollect all that I have done. O Fire, lead us along the good way towards our riches (deserts). O Lord, thou knowest everybody’s mental states; remove the wily evil from us. We utter repeated salutations to thee.

VI-i-1: Om. He who knows that which is the oldest and greatest, becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives. The vital force is indeed the oldest and greatest. He who knows it to be such becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such.

VI-i-2: He who knows the Vasistha (that which best helps to dwell or cover) becomes the Vasistha among his relatives. The organ of speech is indeed the Vasistha. He who knows it as such becomes the Vasistha among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such.

VI-i-3: He who knows Pratistha (that which has steadiness) lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times. The eye indeed is Pratistha, for through the eye one lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times. He who knows it as such lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times.

VI-i-4: He who knows Sampad (prosperity) attains whatever object he desires. The ear indeed is Sampad, for all these Vedas are acquired when one has the ear (intact). He who knows it to be such attains whatever object he desires.

VI-i-5: He who knows the abode becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people. The Manas indeed is the abode. He who knows it to be such becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people.

VI-i-6: He who knows Prajati (that which has the attribute of generation) is enriched with children and animals. The seed (organ) has this attribute. He who knows it to be such is enriched with children and animals.

VI-i-7: These organs, disputing over their respective greatness, went to Brahman and said to him, ‘Which of us is the Vasistha ?’ He said, ‘That one of you will be the Vasistha, who departing from among yourselves, people consider this body far more wretched’.

VI-i-8: The organ of speech went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said, ‘We lived just as dumb people do, without speaking through the organ of speech, but living through the vital force, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.’ So the organ of speech entered.

VI-i-9: The eye went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said, ‘We lived just as blind people do, without seeing through the eye, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.’ So the eye entered.

VI-i-10: The ear went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said, ‘We lived just as deaf people do, without hearing through the ear, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.’ So the ear entered.

VI-i-11: The mind went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said, ‘We lived just as idiots do, without knowing through the mind, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and having children through the organ of generation.’ So the mind entered.

VI-i-12: The organ of generation went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said, ‘We lived just as eunuchs do, without having children through the organ of generation, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind.’ So the organ of generation entered.

VI-i-13: Then as the vital force was about to go out, it uprooted those organs just as a great, fine horse from Sind pulls out the pegs to which his feet are tied. They said, ‘Please do not go out, sir, we cannot live without you’. ‘Then give me tribute.’ ‘All right’.

VI-i-14: The organ of speech said, ‘That attribute of the Vasistha which I have is yours’. The eye: ‘That attribute of steadiness which I have is yours’. The ear: ‘That attribute of prosperity which I have is yours’. The mind: ‘That attribute of abode which I have is yours’. The organ of generation: ‘That attribute of generation which I have is yours’. (The vital force said:) ‘Then what will be my food and my dress ?’ (The organs said:) ‘Whatever is (known as) food, including dogs, worms, insects and moths, is your food, and water your dress’. He who knows the food of the vital force to be such, never happens to eat anything that is not food, or to accept anything that is not food. Therefore wise men who are versed in the Vedas sip a little water just before and after eating. They regard it as removing the nakedness of the vital force.

VI-ii-1: Svetaketu, the grandson of Aruna, came to the assembly of the Panchalas. He approached Pravahana, the son of Jivala, who was being waited on (by his servants). Seeing him the King addressed him, ‘Boy !’ He replied, ‘Yes, sir’. ‘Have you been taught by your father ?’ He said, ‘Yes’.

VI-ii-2: ‘Do you know how these people diverge after death ?’ ‘No’, said he. ‘Do you know how they return to this world ?’ ‘No’, said he. ‘Do you know how the other world is never filled by so many people dying thus again and again ?’ ‘No’, said he. ‘Do you know after how many oblations are offered water (the liquid offerings) rises up possessed of a human voice (or under the name of man) and speaks ?’ ‘No’, said he. ‘Do you know the means of access to the way of the gods, or that to the way of the manes – doing which people attain either the way of the gods or the way of the manes ? We have heard the words of the Mantra: ‘I have heard of two routes for men, leading to the manes and the gods. Going along them all this is united. They lie between the father and the mother (earth and heaven).”’ He said, ‘I know not one of them’.

VI-ii-3: Then the King invited him to stay. The boy, disregarding the invitation to stay, hurried away. He came to his father and said to him, ‘Well, did you not tell me before that you had (fully) instructed me ?’ ‘How (did you get hurt), my sagacious child ?’ ‘That wretch of a Kshatriya asked me five questions, and I knew not one of them.’ ‘Which are they ?’ ‘These’, and he quoted their first words.

VI-ii-4: The father said, ‘My child, believe me, whatever I knew I told you every bit of it. But come, let us go there and live as students’. ‘You go alone, please’. At this Gautama came to where King Pravahana, the son of Jivala, was giving audience. The King gave him a seat, had water brought for him, and made him the reverential offering. Then he said, ‘We will give revered Gautama, a boon’.

VI-ii-5: Aruni said, ‘You have promised me this boon. Please tell me what you spoke to my boy about’.

VI-ii-6: The King said, ‘This comes under heavenly boons, Gautama. Please ask some human boon’.

VI-ii-7: Aruni said, ‘You know that I already have gold, cattle and horses, maid-servants, retinue, and dress. Be not ungenerous towards me alone regarding this plentiful, infinite and inexhaustible (wealth).’ ‘Then you must seek it according to form, Gautama’. ‘I approach you (as a student)’. The ancients used to approach a teacher simply through declaration. Aruni lived as a student by merely announcing that he was at his service.

VI-ii-8: The King said: Please do not take offence with us, Gautama, as your paternal grandfathers did not (with ours). Before this, this learning never rested with a Brahmana. But I shall teach it to you; for who can refuse you when you speak like this ?

VI-ii-9: That word (heaven), O Gautama, is fire, the sun is its fuel, the rays its smoke, the day its flame, the four quarters its cinder, and the intermediate quarters its sparks. In this fire the gods offer faith (liquid oblations in subtle form). Out of that offering King Moon is born (a body is made in the moon for the sacrificer).

VI-ii-10: Parjanya (the god of the rain), O Gautama, is fire, the year is its fuel, the clouds its smoke, lightning its flame, thunder its cinder, and the rumblings its sparks. In this fire the gods offer King Moon. Out of that offering rain is produced.

VI-ii-11: This world, O Gautama, is fire, the earth is its fuel, fire its smoke, the night its flame, the moon its cinder, and stars its sparks. In this fire the gods offer rain. Out of that offering food is produced.

VI-ii-12: Man, O Gautama, is fire, the open mouth is its fuel, the vital force its smoke, speech its flame, the eye its cinder, and the ear its sparks. In this fire the gods offer food. Out of that offering the seed is produced.

VI-ii-13: Woman, O Gautama, is fire. In this fire the gods offer the seed. Out of that offering a man is born. He lives as long as he is destined to live. Then, when he dies —

VI-ii-14: They carry him to be offered in the fire. The fire becomes his fire, the fuel his fuel, the smoke his smoke, the flame his flame, the cinder his cinder, and the sparks his sparks. In this fire the gods offer the man. Out of that offering the man emerges radiant.

VI-ii-15: Those who know this as such, and those others who meditate with faith upon the Satya-Brahman in the forest, reach the deity identified with the flame, from him the deity of the day, from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon waxes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels northward, from them the deity identified with the world of the gods, from him the sun, and from the sun the deity of lightning. (Then) a being created from the mind (of Hiranyagarbha) comes and conducts them to the worlds of Hiranyagarbha. They attain perfection and live in those worlds of Hiranyagarbha for a great many superfine years. They no more return to this world.

VI-ii-16: While those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices, charity and austerity, reach the deity of smoke, from him the deity of the night, from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon wanes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels southward, from them the deity of the world of the manes, and from him the moon. Reaching the moon they become food. There the gods enjoy them as the priests drink the shining Soma juice (gradually, saying, as it were), ‘Flourish, dwindle’. And when their past work is exhausted, they reach (become like) this ether, from the ether air, from air rain, and from rain the earth. Reaching the earth they become food. Then they are again offered in the fire of man, thence in the fire of woman, whence they are born (and perform rites) with a view to going to other worlds. Thus do they rotate. While those others who do not know these two ways become insects and moths, and these frequently biting things (gnats and mosquitoes).

VI-iii-1: He who wishes to attain greatness (should perform) on an auspicious day in a fortnight in which the moon waxes, and under a male constellation, during the northward march of the sun, (a sacrifice in the following manner): He should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads (i.e. live on milk), collect in a cup of bowl made of fig wood all herbs and their grains, sweep and plaster (the ground), purify the offerings in the prescribed manner, interpose the Mantha (paste made of those things), and offer oblations with the following Mantras: ‘O Fire, to all those gods under you, who spitefully frustrate men’s desires, I offer their share. May they, being satisfied, satisfy me with all objects of desire ! Svaha. To that all-procuring deity who turns out spiteful under your protection, thinking she is the support of all, I offer this stream of clarified butter. Svaha’.

VI-iii-2: Offering oblations in the fire saying, ‘Svaha to the oldest, Svaha to the greatest’, he dips the remnant adhering to the ladle into the paste. Offering oblations in the fire saying, ‘Svaha to the vital force, Svaha to the Vasistha’, he drips the remnant, etc. Offering oblations saying, ‘Svaha to the organ of speech, Svaha to that which has steadiness’, he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, Svaha to the eye, Svaha to prosperity’, he drips etc. Offering oblations saying, ‘Svaha to the ear, Svaha to the abode’, he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, ‘Svaha to the Manas, Svaha to Prajati’, he drips, etc. Offering oblations saying, ‘Svaha to the organ of generation’, he drips, etc.

VI-iii-3: Offering an oblation in the fire saying, ‘Svaha to fire’, he drips the remnant adhering to the ladle into the paste. Offering and oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the moon,’ he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the earth’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the sky’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to heaven’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the earth, sky and heaven’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the Brahmana’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the Kshatriya’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the past’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the future’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to the whole’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to all’, he drips, etc. Offering an oblation saying, ‘Svaha to Prajapati’, he drips, etc.

VI-iii-4: Then he touches the paste saying, ‘You move (as the vital force), you burn (as fire), you are infinite (as Brahman), you are still (as the sky). You combine everything in yourself. You are the sound ‘Him’, and are uttered as ‘Him’ (in the sacrifice by the Prastotr). You are the Udgitha and are chanted (by the Udgatr). You are recited (by the Adhvaryu) and recited back (by the Agnidhra). You are fully ablaze in a humid (cloud). You are omnipresent, and master. You are food (as the moon), and light (as fire). You are death, and you are that in which all things merge’.

VI-iii-5: Then he takes it up saying, ‘You know all (as the vital force); we too are aware of your greatness. The vital force is the king, the lord, the ruler. May it make me king, lord and ruler !’

VI-iii-6: Then he drinks it saying, ‘The radiant sun is adorable –; The winds are blowing sweetly, the rivers are shedding honey, may the herbs be sweet unto us ! Svaha to the earth. Glory we meditate upon; May the nights and days be charming, and the dust of the earth be sweet, may heaven, our father, be gracious ! Svaha to the sky. May he direct our intellect; May the Soma creeper be sweet unto us, may the sun be kind, may the quarters be helpful to us ! Svaha to heaven’. Then he repeats the whole Gayatri and the whole Madhumati, and says at the end, ‘May I be all this ! Svaha to the earth, sky and heaven.’ Then he drinks the whole remnant, washes his hands, and lies behind the fire with his head to the east. In the morning he salutes the sun saying, ‘Thou art the one lotus of the quarters; may I be the one lotus of men !’ Then he returns the way he went, sits behind the fire, and repeats the line of teachers.

VI-iii-7: Uddalaka, the son of Aruni, taught this to his pupil Yajnavalkya, the Vajasaneya, and said, ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout’.

VI-iii-8: The Yajnavalkya, the Vajasaneya, taught this to his pupil Madhuka, the son of Paingi and said, ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout’.

VI-iii-9: Madhuka, the son of Paingi, again taught this to his pupil Cula, the son of Bhagavitta, and said, ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout’.

VI-iii-10: Then Cula, the son of Bhagavitta, taught this to his pupil Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna, and said, ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout’.

VI-iii-11: Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna, again taught this to Satyakama, the son of Jabala, and said, ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout’.

VI-iii-12: And Satyakama, the son of Jabala, in his turn, taught this to his pupils and said, ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves sprout’. One must not teach this to anyone but a son or a pupil.

VI-iii-13: Four things are made of fig wood: the ladle, the bowl, the fuel and the two mixing rods. The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice, barley, sesame, beans, Anu, Priyangu, wheat, lentils, pulse and vetches. They should be crushed and soaked in curds, honey and clarified butter, and offered as an oblation.

VI-iv-1: The earth is the essence of all these beings, water the essence of the earth, herbs of water, flowers of herbs, fruits of flowers, man of fruits, and the seed of man.

VI-iv-2: Prajapati thought, ‘Well, let me make an abode for it’, and he created woman.

VI-iv-3: …………………

VI-iv-4: Knowing verily this, Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, Naka, the son of Mudgala, and Kumaraharita said, ‘Many men -Brahmanas only in name – who have union without knowing as above, depart from this world impotent and bereft of merits’.

VI-iv-5: …………………..

VI-iv-6: If man sees his reflection in water, he should recite the following Mantra: ‘(May the gods grant) me lustre, manhood, reputation, wealth and merits’. She (his wife) is indeed the goddess of beauty among women. Therefore he should approach this handsome woman and speak to her.

VI-iv-7: If she is not willing, he should buy her over; and if she is still unyielding, he should strike her with a stick or with the hand and proceed, uttering the following Mantra, ‘I take away your reputation’, etc. She is then actually discarded.

VI-iv-8: If she is willing, he should proceed, uttering the following Mantra: ‘I transmit reputation into you’, and they both become reputed.

VI-iv-9: …………………..

VI-iv-10: …………………..

VI-iv-11: …………………..

VI-iv-12: If a man’s wife has a lover whom he wishes to injure, he should put the fire in an unbaked earthen vessel, spread stalks of reed and Kusa grass in an inverse way, and offer the reed tips, soaked in clarified butter, in the fire in an inverse way, saying, ‘Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy Prana and Apana – such and such. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy sons and animals – such and such. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy Vedic rites and those done according to the Smriti – such and such. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire, I take away thy hopes and expectations – such and such’. The man whom a Brahmana with knowledge of this ceremony curses, departs from this world emasculated and shorn of his merits. Therefore one should not wish even to cut jokes with the wife of a Vedic scholar who knows this ceremony, for he who has such knowledge becomes an enemy.

VI-iv-13: If anybody’s wife has the monthly sickness, she should drink of three days out of a cup (Kamsa). No Sudra man or woman should touch her. After three nights she should bathe, put on a new cloth, and be put to thresh rice.

VI-iv-14: He who wishes that his son should be born fair, study one Veda and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked in milk, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

VI-iv-15: He who wishes that his son should be born tawny or brown, study two Vedas and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked in curd, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

VI-iv-16: He who wishes that his son should be born dark with red eyes, study three Vedas and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked in water and he and his wife should eat with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

VI-iv-17: He who wishes that a daughter should be born to him who would be a scholar and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked with sesame, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a daughter.

VI-iv-18: He who wishes that a son should be born to him who would be a reputed scholar, frequenting the assemblies and speaking delightful words, would study all the Vedas and attain a full term of life, should have rice cooked with the meat of a vigorous bull or one more advanced in years, and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they would be able to produce such a son.

VI-iv-19: In the very morning he purifies the clarified butter according to the mode of Sthalipaka, and offers Sthalipaka oblations again and again, saying, ‘Svaha to fire, Svaha to Anumati, Svaha to the radiant sun who produces infallible results’. After offering, he takes up (the remnant of the cooked food), eats part of it and gives the rest to his wife. Then he washes his hands, fills the water-vessel and sprinkles her thrice with that water, saying. ‘Get up from here, Visvavasu, and find out another young woman (who is) with her husband.’

VI-iv-20: He embraces her saying, ‘I am the vital force, and you are speech; you are speech, and I am the vital force; I am Saman, and you are Rik; I am heaven, and you are the earth; come, let us strive together so that we may have a male child.’

VI-iv-21: …………….

VI-iv-22: ……………..

VI-iv-23: …………..

VI-iv-24: When (the son) is born, he should bring in the fire, take him in his lap, put a mixture of curd and clarified butter in a cup, and offer oblations again and again with that, saying, ‘Growing in this home of mine (as the son), may I maintain a thousand people ! May (the goddess of fortune) never depart with children and animals from his line ! Svaha. The vital force that is in me, I mentally transfer to you. Svaha. If I have done anything too much or to little in this ceremony, may the all-knowing beneficent fire make it just right for me – neither too much nor too little ! Svaha.’

VI-iv-25: Then putting (his mouth) to the child’s right ear, he should thrice repeat, ‘Speech, speech’. Next mixing curd, honey and clarified butter, he feeds him with (a strip of) gold not obstructed (by anything), saying, ‘I put the earth into you, I put the sky into you, I put heaven into you, I put the whole of the earth, sky and heaven into you’.

VI-iv-26: The he gives him a name, ‘You are Veda (knowledge)’. That is his secret name.

VI-iv-27: Then he hands him to his mother to be suckled, saying, ‘Offering Sarasvati, that breast of thine which is stored with results, is the sustainer of all, full of milk, the obtainer of wealth (one’s deserts) and generous, and through which thou nourishest all who are worthy of it (the gods etc.) – transfer that here (to my wife, for my babe) to suck’.

VI-iv-28: Then he addressed the mother: ‘You are the adorable Arundhati, the wife of Vasistha; you have brought forth a male child with the help of me, who am a man. Be the mother of many sons, for you have given us a son’. Of him who is born as the child of a Brahmana with this particular knowledge, they say, ‘You have exceeded your father, and you have exceeded your grandfather. You have reached the extreme limit of attainment through your splendour, fame and Brahmanical power.’

VI-v-1: Now the line of teachers: The son of Pautimsa (received it) from the son of Katyayani. He from the son of gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. He from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Aupasvasti. He from the son of another Parasari. He from the son of Katyayani. The son of katyayani from the son of Kausiki. The son of Kausiki from the son of Alambi and the son of Vaiyaghrapadi. The son of Vaiyaghrapadi from the son of Kanvi and the son of Kapi. The son of Kapi –

VI-v-2: From the son of Atreyi. The son of Atreyi from the son of gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. He from the son of parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Vatsi. The son of Vatsi from the son of another Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Varkaruni. He from the son of another Varkaruni. This one from the son of Artabhagi. He from the son of Saungi. The son of Saungi from the son of Samkrti. He from the son of Alambayani. He again from the son of Alambi. The son of Alambi from the son of jayanti. He from the son of Mandukayani. He in his turn from the son of Manduki. The son of manduki from the son of Sandili. The son of Sandili from the son of Rathitari. He from the son of Bhaluki. The son of Bhaluki from the two sons of Kraunciki. They from the son of Vaidabhrti. He from the son of Karsakeyi. He again from the son of Pracinayogi. He from the son of Samjivi. The son of Samjivi from Asurivasin, the son of Prasni. The son of Prasni from Asurayana. He from Asuri. Asuri –

VI-v-3: From Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka. Uddalaka from Aruna. Aruna from Upavesi. Upavesi from Kusri. Kusri from Vajasravas. He from Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga. He from Asita, the son of Varsagana. He from Harita Kasyapa. He from Silpa Kasyapa. This one from Kasyana, the son of Nidhruva. He from Vac. She from Ambhini. She from the sun. These white Yajuses received from the sun are explained by Yajnavalkya Vajasaneya.

VI-v-4: The same up to the son of Samjivi. The son of Samjivi from Mandukayani. Mandukayani from mandavya. Mandavya from Kautsa. Kautsa from Mahitthi. He from Vamakaksayana. He from Sandilya. Sandilya from Vatsya. Vatsya from Kusri. Kusri from Yajnavacas, the son of rajastamba. He from Tura, the son of Kavasi. He from Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha). Prajapati through his relation to Brahman (the Vedas). Brahman is self-born. Salutation to Brahman.

Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.

The infinite proceeds from the infinite.

(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),

It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.

Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !

Here ends the Brihadaranyopanishad, as contained in the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.

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