The Field Beyond the Moon, Weekly Horoscope for Tuesday September 20th, 2011 to Monday September 26th, 2011

The Hanged Man

Le Pendu, the Hanged Man

As we contemplate the verities of astrology, our first path of thought should take us to the beginning, the point where the planets assumed their power and roles. Regressing the mind within the scope of time back to this point will take some free-form thinking: abandoning contemporary misconceptions on the art, even perhaps drifting away from the uncharted centuries it has had to develop into its own form. The most lucid insights into these origins, perhaps, are reflected in the ancient texts of Vedic astrology, and in this week’s post we will be exploring more of the magnificent opus, Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra (BPHS):

Ch. 2, v. 3-4. The unborn Vishnu has many incarnations. He has incarnated, as the Navagrahas (nine planets) to bestow on the living beings the results due to their karma. He is Janardan, exciter of human beings. He assumed the auspicious form of planets to destroy the Asuras and sustain the Devas.

The creation story of Vedic astrology is revealed in the above excerpt. The unborn absolute, or an original state of consciousness prior to form and content, manifested itself in nine separate “spheres of power”, or planets, to facilitate the distribution of karma, or the results of action, to living beings. Moreover, the form of the planets “destroy the Asuras and sustain the Devas.” This directly attributes the quality of Vishnu, as the agent of maintaining order, to the planets – that the role of the planets is to keep the functional and anticipated processes of the cosmos, the world, society, and the individual in their natural step. Deviance to the natural order, or dharma, is the work of asuras – that class of beings throughout Vedic lore work to subvert and possess the power of the devas: Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), Apas (Water), Privithi (Earth), Indra (Storm/Lightning), Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon), Soma (Immortality), Rudra (Knowledge of the Forest), Savitri (Dawn). That all things follow a natural order is not the basis for a theological argument, but rather is used as an empirical and ontological assumption about reality, the field we find ourselves in.

To dig a bit deeper, and to shed a loftier light on this matter, our consideration turns towards a tricky excerpt from the BPHS:

Ch. 2, v. 8-13. The beings with more Jivatmāńś (identification with the limited, individual self) are mortal beings. The high degree of Paramatmāńś (identification with the infinite, universal self) from the planets – Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Rahu/Ketu – facilitated the incarnation of the Avatars. After completing their roles on Earth, Paramatmāńśas of the respective Avatars again merge in the respective planets. The Jivatma portions from the planets take births, as human beings and live their lives according to their karma, and again merge in the planets. And at the time of Mahapralaya (universal destruction) the planets also merge into Vishnu. The one who knows of all this is versed in the knowledge of the past, present and future. Without a knowledge of Jyotish these cannot be known…

Enjoyable and informative in itself, the language of this excerpt could fare well with some distillation. The “light” of Vedic astrology is the same light that illumines the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Agamas/Tantras. Although the approaches differ in all of the texts, the result is the same: knowledge of the soul. Identification of consciousness with the limited, mortal body is integral to the process of karma and the field of action that we engage with. We find ourselves “wrapped up” in the engagements of life from the moment of birth to the time of death, for better or worse, and there is seemingly no reprieve. The endless process of action is perpetuated by the planets, as agents of karma, and not only is individual destiny bound to their grasp, but the expression or faculty of individuality itself “emerges from” their respective spheres. Humans enjoy only a limited portion of the total power of the planets, however, and this power is variable to a great degree. Limited identification of consciousness restricts the individual from fully blossoming into this power, and no matter how true or full a human embodies a planet’s energy, they will always be short of its full potential. At death, we are left with nothing, or possibly a trace of what we once were – but the planets remain. And at the great universal end, the planets themselves are nothing, and what remains is the Unborn. That our origin is planetary is a point of further consideration, to be sure, with the assumption that in reality, our source is nothing more or less than the infinite.

To come back to the reality of this week’s post, let us consider this point: that there are traditions that speak of “going beyond” the planets and their grasp. Assume for a moment that the language we are using is made modern, empirical to contemporary standards, and conceptually fit for a rational mind: that the totality of society, family, friendship, class, gender, species, even self-identification can be left behind, to posit that our true identity, before and after, and even amidst, all time and space and knowledge, is nothing but unborn consciousness. Further still, this unborn consciousness will live on, continuing even without name or form, through a continual cycle of universal creation and destruction – through innumerable Big Bangs and universal entropies. And that brilliant universal fire attracts us like moths to our own annihilation – and still, only the replete remains. To self-identify with this process, just for a moment, can unravel the gnarliest of karmic knots. From the Avadhuta Gita, the “Song of the Supremely Free”:

40. The absolute void and its opposite, all am I everlastingly.

41. Atman (Self) is not male or female, nor is It neuter; neither is It happiness or suffering. How dare ye pervert It?

42. Atman is not purified by the six methods of Yoga. Absence of the mind makes It no clearer. The teachings of a Guru reveal It not. It is all purity, in Itself, by Itself.

43. I am neither bound nor free. I am not separate from Brahman (Universal Self).

To come to this realization, and then act on it within the world, brings real change. Otherwise it is only fingers pointing at fingers pointing at the Moon. Our task is to shed more light on our dire situation, to think outside the confines of what has been grievously given to us, to accept that “nothing is true, and all is permitted.” We can step out from the field of planetary control, and through this come back with a clearer vision of what control is in a more exacting way.

To this week’s horoscope, then. On both Tuesday September 20th and Wednesday September 21st we see the Moon transiting through Gemini, Mercury’s duplicitous and airy sign. Mercury will be stationed at the tail end of Leo, the sign of the Sun, and the Moon will thus be eleven signs from there. This indicates that through clear and genuine communication and interaction, and engaging in constructive or healing actions, one will enjoy both gain and pleasure. The Moon and Mercury working together in this way will reveal insights into relationships with siblings and close friends, as well. Engaging with this dynamic is a two way street, like always, and whatever you contribute to your friendships, networks, or family will be rewarded duly.

Moving into the heart of the week, Thursday September 22nd, Friday September 23rd, and Saturday September 24th will be a three day block of planetary confluence and upheaval. Again we see four planets transiting through a single sign – the Sun, Mercury, Venus, and Saturn all in the earth sign Virgo. Mercury, of course, is the lord of Virgo, and thus carries the most weight as he slips into the sign on Thursday, joining the other three planets. An incredibly lofty and brilliant mood, grounded in the strength of the world and the soul, will be manifest clearly on these three days. Coupled with the Moon transiting into its own sign, Cancer, and a fiery conjunction with Mars, these three days will certainly spell out intensity on all levels and spheres. Approach these days with a light and creative gait, and you will be rewarded. Emotions can definitely get the best of you if left unchecked, especially those that heat the blood.

To end this astrological week, we see the Moon coming into Leo, the sign of the Sun. All the other planets will be in their above mentioned signs. The Moon coming into Leo on Sunday September 26th is also imbued with the energy of the new Moon. This will be a night of processing, relaxation, and conversation. It will be a perfect night to set up for the next two weeks and one’s own projects, which will be strengthened and fueled by the four planets in Virgo. Set realistic goals and write them down on the new Moon night, and follow them with persistence and consistency. Anything is possible during these strange conjunctions, especially in effecting the “real world”. There is little to anticipate on the negative side of things, and only good can come from connecting with those that you care for and support you and your endeavors during this night. Tread lightly, still, as the sensitivity of the new Moon will be fully present.

Ultimately, of course, our true self lays just beyond the field of the Moon. But it is on these most curious of planetary and lunar nights that we can realize and embody this knowledge to its fullest degree.



The Dwarf Star, Horoscope for Tuesday August 23rd, 2011 to Monday August 29th, 2011

The light of the stars is shining once again, as summer draws to a close, the Moon waning in the near autumn sky. Unthinking vanity flourishes on the surface, and from beneath there is a rumble blossoming in real lack. The reflection of one shines forth in the other. Our forest of appearance has become rarefied, splitting itself into seemingly limitless fractals of invisible and indivisible roots, further discovering vanishing pockets of the authentic to ground itself in. And that authentic ground itself has entered the market to be divvied up, labeled, and pushed back into itself for analysis, consumption and growth. Collectively we ride this boat labeled in diverse ways as Humanity, Civilization, Society, Work. And even here, in the midst of the totality of excess and glamor that has been promised, there are those that are jumping ship.

In this vein, the time that we are looking forward to this week is not anything other than the waning fortnight of the Moon, as the great river of time approaches the night when the Sun and Moon dwell together. The meaning of this is relevant to seekers who recognize that time, being a reflection of the skies, has a working balance that is achieved in its cycles. This week is dedicated to clearing, healing, learning, space, nurturing.

In our general sphere, both Venus and the Sun will be conjunct in the sidereal sign of Leo, which results in both the desire for and the eclipsing of creative energies. The Sun, being in its own sign, and in the height of its favorite summer month, has peculiar strength that must be engaged with directly. The sign of the Sun, Leo, will especially feel an urge towards independence, coming back into oneself, and solidifying your goals and roles in life. The bright element of Venus, a planet that in Sanskrit is called Shukra, or ‘semen’, will add further desire to achieve independence and a strong sense of self and purpose. One may find this in the reflection of action, the flowering buds that shine in the space of oneself.

Jupiter holds a strong place in Aries this week, sitting nearly directly in the center of the sign. Since the planet of unlimited growth and potential has passed that crucial mid-sign mark, it is now matured and ready to open doors of opportunity and new environments for those that seek them in the next six months. What is important here is that one must engage with Jupiter’s energy of bounty with a strong and fiery will. Mars rules Aries, and thus Mars is the gateway to what Jupiter has to offer.

There is a strange triadic relationship between Mars in Gemini, Saturn in Virgo, and Mercury in Cancer that points us towards an understanding of intent, loss, and communication this week. While both Mars and Saturn, the two natural malefic planets, sit in each of Mercury’s signs respectively, Mercury is transiting through the Moon’s sign, Cancer. This indicates that any issues that relate negatively to health, finances, communication, or interpersonal relationships will be temporary and reflective of the position and phase of the Moon. Mercury, never able to be pinned down or defined, will be defining the character of both Mars and Saturn.

As August 29th approaches, the night of the new Moon, anticipate a near complete withdrawal from the activities of the summer, and redirect your gaze forward into the empty, but pregnant, potential of the winter. A strong, one-pointed gaze of the will can work miracles during this time of potentialities, where many paths lay open before us all.

To simply be – in Sanskrit, bhUta, ‘to become, to have been, to exist presently, the real’, from bhU, ‘the earth, place of being, space, being’ –  might be the real lesson from the stars this coming week. The new Moon night – in Sanskrit amAvAsya, ‘to dwell together’, the night the Sun and Moon are finally united – is an emptying of light, to be sure, but it is also the inaugural night of growth, of flowering. And when the only light that shines forth – in Sanskrit, avabhAsa, “a splendor shining down [into the earth]” – is in being, one’s own self, then there is no mistake in saying that we are our own fertile ground, and this truth is as bright as the full Moon, even when it is empty.

To Bear the Fruits of the Planets, Horoscope for Sunday May 1st, 2011 to Saturday May 7th, 2011

Last week, as you have noticed, there was no horoscope to report – maybe it was a combination of the flux of the waxing Moon and its culmination in fullness, which without fail has its effect on me. Or maybe I could attribute it to the revolution of Spring, and the fresh and forgotten feeling of the Sun amidst the deep, damp penetration that the rain exacts on Eugene. Go even further and combine this with the celestial atmosphere of planetary imbalance in Pisces and a retrograde Mercury and Saturn – and yes, there are new movements now, new paths have emerged, new hopes and dreams and desires for us all to follow – surely this has been the case in my own sphere. Let us continue that momentum here, taking a break from the abstraction of previous horoscopes, and instead glean the fruits straight from the vine that the planets offer. For it is only logical that the planets bestow, in equal parts, the fruits of their passion on living creatures, as they themselves are living – where they orbit each other with precise attraction, where their very gravity emerges from fits of polar duality, where their mass and volume trump with ease all order of species on Earth – we can only assume that they bear an attraction and passion so great that it is only known to us in part.

There is a particular affinity that we all have for the first of May – May Day – whether it be for the unconscious instinct of new beginnings, to till the ground and sow our seed, to strive and aim for what is within ease and reach, to engage in the rites of fertility (from the Latin, fertilis, “formation”; and from the Greek, pherein, “to bear”; and the Sanskrit, bhara, “bearing, carrying, granting, bestowing, raising a great cry, a war or battle or contest”; this is, surely, the time to cherish and participate in our own creation, or align with the natural fertility that environs us, or to raise a cry to contest and sublimate the powers that inhibit this process). And following this last intimation, there is that other aspect of May Day, that is well known in the industrial world, to assert the power of the social over the barren terrain of Capital, to directly confront that elusive power that maintains the division between natural fertility and our desire to participate in it – so we see organized resistance in Germany, France, Greece, the US on May Day, which possibly seeks both consciously and unconsciously to create the space where the natural order can reign again.

Let us look at the dynamic of the planets for May Day. The Moon finds herself in the lunar mansion (in Sanskrit and Vedic astrology, nakshatra, the lunar zodiac composed of twenty seven equal parts, where the Moon travels through one by one daily) of Ashwini on Sunday – and this star holds manifold significances. It is by order of the lunar zodiac the first mansion of the Moon, as Aries is the first sign of the solar zodiac. Ashwini’s etymology from the Sanskrit begins with ashva, “of a horse” or even the “number seven”, as there are seven horses of the Sun – which has been supposed elsewhere to correlate with each of seven colors, the seven chakras, the seven physical planets – but further the etymology evolves into the two charioteers, the Ashvins, a pair of twins that traverse the skies appearing in the sky before dawn in a golden carriage drawn by horses or birds. The bear treasures, but more importantly they bring the knowledge of healing arts used to avoid sickness and misfortune. The power of the lunar mansion Ashwini is the power of healing. The Moon in Ashwini sets the mood or feeling for the day to achieve healing and catharsis. The power of the Moon to realize this energy is further enabled by the conjunction of the Moon in Aries with the Sun. Although this does mean that the Moon will be nearly devoid of her light, the exalted and vigorous position of the Sun in Aries will enable the dynamic of the soul and mind – the Sun and Moon, respectively – to further the ideals that we all strive for on the first of May, whether they be directly aimed at fertility, or inversely at resistance.

We then find ourselves in the midst of the new Moon on Monday, May 2. This is a particularly potent lunar event, as well. It is the Moon’s day – Monday – and the power of the new Moon is fueled by the lunar mansion it falls in, Bharani. Coming full circle from what has already been detailed above, Bharani’s etymology is, of course, tied to the Sanskrit, bhara and bharaNa, “bearing, maintaining, carrying in the womb, nourishing”. Bharani’s symbol is the womb, an inverted triangle, and its power is the domain of birth and death. There is an anomaly, however, in Bharani as the deity presiding over the star is known as Nirriti, the goddess of curses and calamity, of destruction, dwelling in the inauspicious southwest. So while Bharani is the power to bear through the creative soil of the womb, it is also the power to take that life away. This energy reveals the root nature that will still be playing itself out from May Day, blurring the lines of both creative and destructive acts, as we may find ourselves mired, but fully engaged, in our own manifesting and pillaging.

On Tuesday May 3, there is yet an important planetary transit that will have a strong impact on the next couple weeks. Mars will be transiting from Pisces – leaving the crowded sign that still houses Mercury, Venus, and Jupiter – into a conjunction with the Sun and Moon in Aries. That this event happens on Tuesday, the day of Mars, and that the Sun is exalted in Aries, and that this will be the first day of the waxing Moon, all will augment the dynamic potential here. The Moon will now be in the lunar mansion Krittika. The etymology of Krittika is from the Sanskrit, kRtta, “cut or divided”, and the power of Krittika is tied directly to this definition,. The group of stars in this lunar mansion is symbolized by a razor or knife, or sometimes as a burning flame, as the deity presiding here is Agni, the god of fire. The six stars that compose the lunar mansion here at the end of Aries and first part of Taurus were in the oldest Vedic myths known as nymphs who became nurses attending to Mars, the god of war. The exertion of Mars asserting himself in his own fiery sign of Aries, along with the exalted Sun and a sharp Moon, will prove to be an opportune day to carve out your own destiny and path, free from the confines of past habits, assumptions, or disposition. There is a dangerous freshness here, in that what you desire you may just get.

Coming to the middle of the week, Wednesday May 4, we gain a much needed reprieve from the rollercoaster intensity of the week’s first days. The Moon takes leave from the transient madness building in Aries, and finds the soothing oasis of her own exalted sign, Taurus, and also the Moon’s most favored star, the lunar mansion Rohini. To say that Rohini is the most desirable of all the twenty seven lunar mansions is understating the significance it is given in the myth of the Moon. It is said that originally the Moon neither waxed nor waned, but rather moved freely and equally amongst each of the lunar mansions, which were each personified as wives of the male deity of the Moon. Each day, just as now, the Moon would visit one mansion, or wife, at a time, and spend that day and night there, and thus determine the nature of that particular day for life in his sphere of domain. This ensured the regular but predictable diversity of activity that living beings engaged in – some days, depending on the mansion the Moon inhabited, it was a day for construction, healing, and song; and on others, a day for battle, risk, and abandon. Without notice or consent, however, the cycle came to a halt as the Moon became entranced by the beauty of his wife Rohini, who dwelt in the sign of Taurus. Life came to a standstill, as there was no new day, no opportunity for revival or change, no chance to erase the past or move towards a future. There was just the Moon, shining bright and consorting solely with Rohini, lost in her gazelle eyes, immobilized in her mansion. Her name could be derived from the Sanskrit, ruh, “ruddy”, or, “to ascend, mount, attain”. She was the daughter of Daksha, the feared and strong magician. All of the living beings, tired of the Moon’s never ending consorting with Rohini, approached Brahma and pleaded for a remedy. Brahma in turn made the request to Daksha to end the amorous stalemate. And thus Daksha, who was adept in blessings and curses, warned the Moon of his impending doom. The Moon, filled with pride for his elevated position in the sky and power over living beings, ignored the threat. Immediately Daksha cursed him, and immediately the Moon began to lose his luster. Daily the once full and bright light of the Moon diminished, waning with each sunset and sunrise, until the Moon was completely empty, dark, unable to be seen. All living beings protested, for as much as they hated the Moon’s immobility and insistence on staying exclusively with Rohini, they longed even more for just a glimpse of the Moon’s cooling light. Rohini, too, lost interest in the Moon that now was devoid of his luster. Everybody went back to Daksha, and pleaded that the curse on the Moon be removed. Daksha advised that although he cannot remove the curse completely, that he would remove it partially if the Moon consents to resume again his daily movement through each mansion. The Moon, of course, agreed, and now we have the waxing and waning phases of the Moon, culminating in the full and new Moons. This was a long winded way to say that Wednesday holds a special light for us, a day of pleasure, of abandonment in desire, fulfillment in the other. Seek what you truly enjoy on Wednesday, and the Moon will smile gladly on you.

And to come back to normalcy and turn our gaze away from myth, we end our week with the Moon’s transit through Mrigashrisha, Ardra, and Punarvasu – which, although equally significant relative to other lunar mansions, do not carry the same weight as the others this week. In future horoscopes we will dive into their myths, symbols, and energies when appropriate or when they correlate with other relevant celestial events. Until then, it is meaningful to note that on Friday and Saturday the Moon will be conjunct with Ketu, that shadowy body of eclipse, and that extra precaution could be advised in our daily dealings. The continued conjunction in Pisces of Venus, Mercury, and Jupiter, will of course further the creative urge that many are currently enraptured by, and the new conjunction of Mars and Sun in Aries will add an interesting, if not slightly subversive or dangerous, element into the mix.

Ultimately, the week is filled with surprises, marked by revelations and raptures, not something borne in laborious or extraneous conditions, but rather manifested brightly in a state of enstasy, to be lost in the “stance within”. And yes, I admit, I am excited for what may come.

A Meeting of Fools by the River, Horoscope for Sunday March 27, 2011 to Saturday April 2, 2011

Imagine working backwards in time, in a way that all knowledge born in the process of experience, of seeing what is and what is not, was already present in you and the very act of our will moving forward in time, was in reality a movement in reverse. The perennial wish is to know today what will be in our future – to see what station we will occupy, the accouterments that will surround us, and the precise exacting paths that it took to get there. Seemingly, however, the gravity that attracts the will to action, to obtain and gather what it has yet to eclipse, is something that is found exclusively in forward movement. An anticipation lurks in the heart when a new tale is heard, opening fresh and budding pathways in the brain of the seeker, constructing dreamy layers of futures that may never be. The will seeks out these mirages (Latin, mirer: to be amazed, surprised, bewildered, wondered at; related to mirror, miracle; possibly a sense of incompleteness, fulfillment in an image instead of reality, or alternatively a fullness of reality spewing forth as image, enjoyment of self in other) with full force.

When chasing, with a mixture of pleasure and pain, the heady projections of an unrealized future, the will stumbles on new paths that were unanticipated. A laboring journey to the top of a mountain, executed with full preparation and abandonment, may reveal a sweet and flowering low lying valley that calls you down with its comforts. Choice is revealed here that will mark your future – do you continue on your envisioned journey to the top of the peak, savoring the accomplishments of dedication and the liberating views from on high, or do you lower yourself into the arms of the valley and its aura of contentment. Both the mountain peak and the sweet valley will always be there – but there is an empty space that fills the moment of decision. Projections of potentialities fill the brain – the mountain will have this, the valley will have that – and you place yourself in both the high and low, weighing their respective merits.

And that gaping space of indecision and conflict is closed when you decide to descend into the valley, leaving the lofty peaks behind you. All of the preparation for the ascent up the mountain is made worthless in the fleeting call of the valley’s spring. Whole new internal mirages bud instantly once in the valley’s low. Paths so incongruent and dissimilar to the mountain now are real and vibrant and within reach. On and on the will goes like this.

But, how to prepare the will for spontaneous revelations on the path? One must become nothing less than a fool (Latin, follis: bellows, leather bag, windbag, empty headed; further possibility Sanskrit, vAtula: a whirlwind, mad, crazy; to be carried by the winds, the subtlest of the four elements).

Looking to the ever changing celestial cartography, this following week provides several synchronicities that clear great spaces for the wandering fool. To go back to our original image – working backwards in time – in a real way, the destinies and fates of all things have already been mapped. The stable and harmonious revolution of the planets on the backdrop of distant stars tells stories that have only yet to be chosen. The more the will pushes forward in the accumulation of knowledge, of joy, of vigor, of possessions, the more awareness there is that in these movements there were really no choices at all. There are only great expanses of space to fill, foolishly or with dedication.

The week starts off with Sunday – the day of the Sun – and a confluence of planetary forces that are strongly shaping this week’s tide. The Sun, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter find themselves together in Pisces, in what will seem to many to be a feeling of great release and liberation. The soul, represented by the Sun, and the discursive mind, represented by Mercury, join together in the free sign of Pisces, and this will give the feeling of contentment in our action, represented by Mars, and high quality of life, represented by Jupiter. Rahu, the shadowy eclipse maker, joins the Moon in Sagittarius, which may cloud and obscure the aforementioned beautiful planetary weather.

This is temporary, however, as going through the rest of the week the Moon finds its independence in Capricorn on Monday and Tuesday, and on Wednesday joins Venus in Aquarius. The dual-day conjunction of Venus and the Moon in Aquarius on Wednesday and Thursday is sure to provide ample beautification of the inner and outer environments. Spring cleaning, meditation, absorption into art, spontaneous road trip, sudden catharsis, are all signs of Venus conjunct Moon in airy Aquarius.

But we find the true meeting of the fools at the end of the week, April 1st, Friday – the day of Venus – as Mercury, which had previously and temporarily moved into Aries from Pisces, goes retrograde and joins the now Pisces stationed Moon, along with the Sun, Mars, and Jupiter. Mercury retrograde is known the world over to disrupt travel, communications, finances, and decision making processes – couple this with a conjunction with the strong and fiery will of the Sun and Mars, the expansive touch of Jupiter, and the personal and intimate movement of the Moon, along with a direct aspect from retrograde Saturn in Virgo, and we have ourselves a truly spectacular potential for April Fool’s day. Expect severe miscommunication, vigorous tomfoolery and shenanigans, strong prideful bursts of joy and confusion, and also the quiet contemplation that can only come when there is a new Moon. Yes, the Moon is empty on April Fool’s day – there will be no moonlight to steal from the stars. After a day of inchoate mayhem and bliss, surrender your madness to a night of complete contemplation. Work backwards in time, moving the mind retrograde through the ignorance of the past while carrying the absolute light of the future. How far back can you envision, and how far forward? Where do the lines of the body and will blur, and whence the ends of the rope of the eternal past and future? Foolishly swallow the tail of both, with full knowledge of both.